Iranian Journal of Science
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/
Iranian Journal of Scienceendaily1Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0330Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0330An artificial neural network model for the determination of leaky confined aquifer parameters: an accurate alternative to type curve matching methods
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3389.html
&nbsp; A neural network is developed for the determination of leaky confined aquifer parameters. Leakage into the aquifer takes place from the storage in the confining aquitard. The network is trained for the well function of leaky confined aquifers by the back propagation technique and adopting the Levenberg&ndash;Marquardt optimization algorithm. By applying the principal component analysis (PCA) on the adopted training input data and through a trial and error procedure the optimum structure of the network is fixed with the topology of [2&times;10&times;2]. The network generates the optimal match point coordinates for any individual real pumping test data set which are incorporated with Hantush&rsquo;s analytical solution and the aquifer parameter values are determined. The performance of the network is evaluated by real field data and its accuracy is compared with that of the type curve matching technique. The network eliminates graphical error inherent in the type curve matching technique and is recommended as a simple and reliable alternative to the type-curve matching technique. A Higher Dimensional Cosmological Model And Quark Confinement
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3162.html
We have constructed a five dimensional Bianchi type-III cosmological model with strange quark matter attached to the string cloud in Barber’s second self-creation theory of gravitation which is inflationary. An exact inflationary string cosmological model is obtained in which the theory leads to the Einstein theory at initial epoch. It is interesting to note that as T gradually increases, the scalar expansion θ and shear scalar σ2 decrease and finally they vanish when T →∞. The cosmological parameters have been discussed in detailAn investigation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of four Inula helenium L. taxa
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3398.html
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The antioxidant activities of methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and ethyl acetate (EAE) extracts of four Inula helenium L. taxa (I. helenium ssp. orygalis (Boiss.) Grierson, I. helenium ssp. pseudohelenium Grierson, I. helenium ssp. turcarasemosa Grierson and I. helenium ssp. vanensis Grierson) were investigated. The phosphomolybdenum assay, &beta;-carotene&ndash;linoleate bleaching and DPPH radical scavenging activity were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay of the extracts ranged from 4.18 to 102.91 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry extract. The extracts showed considerable effect on reducing the oxidation of &beta;-carotene. The highest radical scavenging activity was obtained for ME of I. helenium ssp. orygalis in DPPH assay. ME, EE and EAE of four Inula helenium taxa showed significant antibacterial activity against 13 bacteria tested. WEs had no inhibitory effect against bacteria tested except for I. helenium ssp. orygalis. EE of I. helenium ssp. orygalis was only effective against C. albicans. An Exponentially Fitted Spline Method for Second Order Singularly Perturbed Delay Differential Equations
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3163.html
This paper deals with the singularly perturbed boundary value problem for the second order delay differential equation. Similar boundary value problems are associated with expected first-exit times of the membrane potential in models of neurons. An exponentially fitted difference scheme on a uniform mesh which is accomplished by the method based on cubic spline in compression. The difference scheme is shown to converge to the continuous solution uniformly with respect to the perturbation parameter is illustrated with numerical results.First principles study of H2O and NH3 adsorption on the pristine and B-doped Al12N12 nanocluster
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3399.html
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Adsorption of NH3 and H2O molecules on pristine and B&ndash;doped Al12N12 nano&ndash;cage was investigated using density functional theory, by means of B3LYP and X3LYP functionals. Both NH3 and H2O molecules were found to bind to an Al atom of Al12N12 via chemisorption, releasing energies ranging from &ndash;1.48 to &ndash;1.53 and &ndash;1.16 to &ndash;1.22 eV, respectively. The binding energies of X3LYP functional are somewhat larger than those of the B3LYP. The Morokuma&ndash;Kitaura energy decomposition approach reveals that the nature of these interactions is mainly electrostatic rather than covalent. The Al12N12 strongly adsorbs these molecules without any change in its electronic properties namely, these processes are electronically ineffectual. B&ndash;doping decreases the adsorption energies of the studied molecules whereas it cannot affect the sensitivity of the Al12N12 towards them. A Numerical Method for Solving Fractional Optimal Control Problms
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3164.html
In this article, we introduce a numerical scheme for solving a classof fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs) where the fractionalderivative is in Caputo sense. First we approximate the involvedfunctions which are in problem by shifted Chebyshev basis;then, an operational matrix is used to transfer the given optimalcontrol problem in to a linear system of algebratic equations. Analyzingthe solution of this system, gives us the solution of originalproblem. A numerical example is also given.Indoor radon concentrations and effective dose estimation in Al-Karkh side of Baghdad dwellings
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3400.html
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Indoor radon concentrations, the annual effective dose rate and the annual equivalent dose rate to the lung and to the public were measured in the dwellings of 10 neighborhoods located on the west side of the river Tigris (Al-Karkh) in Baghdad city using passive dosimeters. CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique was used for radon measurements. Ninety-one dosimeters were distributed in the dwellings of the study area, three dosimeters were planted in three rooms of each house depending on the usage of the room (bedroom, living or sitting room and kitchen). They were left for a period of 3 months during winter time from November 2013 to February 2014. Radon concentrations were found to range from 64.9 Bq.m-3 to 94.7 Bq.m-3 in Daoudi and Hayy Al-Jamiaa, respectively, with a mean value of 79.82&plusmn;1.05 Bq.m-3. The mean annual effective dose rate and the mean equivalent dose rate were found 2.00&plusmn;0.04 mSv.y-1and 4.81&plusmn;0.06 mSv.y-1. The dwellers of Hayy Al-Jamiaa were found to be exposed annually to the highest equivalent dose rate of 5.74 mSv.y-1. All measured values were lower than the international recommended value given by ICRP. On distality of a transformation semigroup with one point compactification of a discrete space as phase space
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3180.html
For infinite discrete topological space Y, suppose A(Y) is one point compactification of , in the following text we prove that the transformation semigroup (A(Y) , S) is distal if and only if the enveloping semigroup E(A(Y) , S), is a group of homeomorphisms on A(Y), or equivalently for all p E(A(Y) , S), p: A(Y) A(Y) is pointwise periodic. Also the transformation group (A(Y) , S) is distal (resp. equicontinuous, pointwise minimal) if and only if for all x A(Y), xS is a finite subset of A(Y).The text is motivated with Tables, Counterexamples and studying finally distality (and co-decomposability to distal transformation semigroups) in abelian transformation semigroup (A(Y) , S).Boron effects on wall polysaccharide composition of marshmallow cells
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3401.html
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Marshmallow is a medicinal plant containing mucilage polysaccharides and various phenolic acids. Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient whose necessity for plant growth and development has been attributed to its role in cell wall pectin network and maintenance of integrity and performance of membranes. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of B (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mM respectively as deficient, sufficient or control, and excess concentrations) on cell wall polysaccharides of suspension-cultured Althaea officinalis cells in a modified LS medium. The results showed that under B deficiency higher ratio of cell production was devoted to produce wall materials (4.4% of fresh weight), compared with normal and excess B supply (2.3% and 1.8% of fresh weights, respectively). Moreover, B deficiency drastically reduced relative contents of hemicellulose A and cellulose (78% and 72%) compared to those of the control cells. No significant change appeared in the relative amount of pectin in cell walls of deficient and excess B treated cells, in comparison with normal concentration of B. Boron deficiency significantly increased hemicellulose B (157% of the control). This may help the cells with increasing sites for B adsorption under insufficient B supply, while improving its health benefit, since hemicellulose contributes to lowering cholesterol and increasing gut bacteria. A hybrid approach for Persian Named Entity Recognition
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3181.html
Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an information extraction subtask that attempts to recognize and categorize named entities in unstructured text into predefined categories such as the names of people, organizations, and locations. Recently, machine learning approaches, such as Hidden Markov Model (HMM) as well as hybrid methods, are frequently used to solve Name Entity Recognition. Since the absence of publicly available data sets for NER in Persian, as our knowledge does not exist any machine learning base Persian NER system. Because of HMM innate weaknesses, in this paper, we have used both Hidden Markov Model and rule-based method to recognize named entities in Persian texts. The combination of rule-based method and machine learning method results in a high accurate recognition. The proposed system in it's machine learning section uses from HMM and Viterbi algorithms; and in it's rule-based section employs a set of lexical resources and pattern bases for the recognition of named entities including the names of people, locations and organizations. During this study, we annotate our own training and testing data sets to use in the related phases. Our hybrid approach performs on Persian language with 89.73% precision, 82.44% recall, and 85.93% F-measure using an annotated test corpus including 32,606 tokens.Induction of morphological changes in soy protein concentrate through pressure induced graft copolymerization and evaluation of chemical and thermal properties
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3402.html
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Modification of natural polymers like protein by graft co-polymerization is an important method to incorporate the desired properties into the backbone. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) was grafted with ethylmethacrylate (EMA) using ascorbic acid /potassium persulphate as redox initiator system under pressure. Different reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction pressure, solvent amount, initiator ratio, pH and monomer concentration were optimized to get maximum graft yield (59.5%). The optimized reaction conditions were: reaction time; 150 min, reaction pressure; 7.5 psi, solvent; 150ml, AAc: KPS; 1:1.25, pH; 8, [EMA]; 1.99 X 10-3 Mol L-1. The graft copolymer formed was characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. The grafted protein was found to undergo physico-chemical changes on incorporation of polymer chains onto backbone through graft copolymerization which resulted in enhanced resistance towards moisture absorbance and acid-base attack. Thermal analysis showed higher final decomposition temperature of grafted protein as compared to that of ungrafted backbone. Hexamethylenetetramine as an efficient and reusable organocatalyst in Henry reaction under mild and aqueous solution
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3182.html
Henry reaction is a base catalyzed reaction which can produce β-nitroalcohol or nitroethylene derivatives from the condensation of aryl aldehydes and nitromethane under different conditions. In the present article, we introduce hexamethylenetetramine as a basic organocatalyst for Henry reaction, which can produce β-nitroalcohol derivatives from the condensation of aryl aldehydes and nitromethane under different conditions. By application of this organic base, β-nitroalcohol ompounds were produced as the only product in good to excellent yields. Also reusability of hexamethylenetetramine in this reaction makes our method green.Spectroscopic investigation of light induced response of a Cyano Azobenzene polymer
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3403.html
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In this paper, absorption spectra of both solution and films of cyano azobenzene polymer are investigated. The analysis of overlapped absorption spectra of polymer, related to trans and cis isomers, shows that the population of cis isomers is higher than trans isomers. It means that, cyano azobenzene molecules have a folded structure in polymer, in thermal equilibrium. Presence of cyano molecules causes this folded structure. Illumination of polymer films, prepared by THF solvent, with light of diode pumped solid state laser, results in increasing the population of isomers and their absorption peaks, due to trans-cis and cis-trans photoisomerization process. Then, Isopropanol is added to solution to enhance the freedom degree of molecules. So, the population of trans isomers in films and solutions, prepared by THF+Isopropanol are higher than trans isomers in films prepared only by THF. The illumination of polymer films prepared by THF+Isopropanol changes the concentrations of isomers due to photoisomerization process. Influence of sucrose, glucose, stevia leaf and stevioside on growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus casei
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3185.html
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that exert beneficial health effects on the host. These bacteria produce lactic acid as a product of fermentation. The aim of the present study was to optimize growth and production of lactic acid by three strains of probiotic bacteria at different concentrations of sucrose, glucose, stevia leaf and stevioside. These three strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactic acid production and bacterial growth were respectively estimated by use of gas chromatography and Colony-Forming Units (CFU) assay. The highest bacterial growth and lactic acid production in these three strains were obtained by high concentration of sucrose. Among these three bacteria, Lact casei and Lact brevis can produce more lactic acid compared to Lact plantarum. All strains could produce lactic acid in the presence of sucrose, glucose and stevia leaf extarct in a dose dependent manner. The effect of stevioside on lactic acid production in these strains at high and low concentrations was almost same. In conclusion, data indicate that sucrose is the best carbon source for lactic acid production and bacterial growth. Stevioside and stevia leaf also have a good potential to increase lactic acid production in these three strains.Derivations with power values on multilinear polynomials
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3404.html
A polynomial
&nbsp;
1 2 ( , , , ) n f X X X
is called multilinear if it is homogeneous and linear in every one of its
variables. In the present paper our objective is to prove the following result: Let
&nbsp;
R be a prime K-algebra over a
commutative ring
&nbsp;
K with unity and let 1 2 ( , , , ) n f X X X be a multilinear polynomial over K. Suppose
that
&nbsp;
d is a nonzero derivation on R such that 1 2 1 2 ( , , , ) ( , , , ) s t
df x x x
&nbsp;
n
f x x xn for all
1 2
&nbsp;
, , , n x x x R, where s,t are fixed positive integers. Then 1 2 ( , , , ) n f X X X is central-valued on
R
. We also examine the case R which is a semiprime K-algebra.Correlation between Neurological Deficits and Spinal Cord Pathological Changes in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3186.html
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a common neuroinflammatory disease causing a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. Neuropathological changes in MS including inflammation, demyelination and axonal degeneration are seen in the animal counterpart of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and are biomarkers to follow the pathophysiology and any pharmacology of MS in experimental studies. To elucidate the pattern of these pathological abnormalities in EAE, different aspects of pathological findings and their correlations were studied in the model. EAE induction was done using MOG in C57/Bl6 mice and H & E, Luxol Fast Blue and Bielschowskey staining were used for histopathological evaluation in each region of the spinal cord, lumbar, thoracic and cervical. There was significant positive correlations between “neurological disease score” in EAE mice and each of these pathological findings: “inflammation score”, “ demyelination score” and “ axonal degeneration”. These correlations were observed regardless of the anatomic regions studied. Inflammation and demyelination scores were significantly associated. Degeneration and demyelination scores were correlated positively also. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between scores of inflammation and degeneration in nether of the three anatomical regions of the spinal cords of EAE mice. This study optimizes the EAE model regarding pathological findings in correlation with neurological deficits in the model. The results will help in better utility of the model in MS research.Selective method for reduction of Oximes to amines in the presence of Cu nanoparticle
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3407.html
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The selective reduction of oximes with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of nano Cu and charcoal was investigated. Cu nanoparticles are widely used as catalysts; efficacious catalyst: copper and copper alloy nanometer feature high efficacy and selectivity, and can be used as catalyst in some reactions. We have shown that NaBH4 in the presence of charcoal is an efficient protocol for the reduction of oximes. Reduction reactions were carried out in EtOH (5 mL) as solvent under reflux condition at 70&ndash;80oC. The product amines were obtained in high to excellent yields. The stereo-chemistry of the reduction by using nano Cu is distinctively different from the other methods. SOME IDENTITIES OF CARLITZ DEGENERATE BERNOULLI NUMBERS AND POLYNOMIALS
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3203.html
In this paper, we study the Carlitz’s degenerate Bernoulli numbersand polynomials and give some formulae and identities related to thosenumbers and polynomials.Some characterizations for Legendre curves in the 3-Dimensional Sasakian space
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3413.html
&nbsp; In this paper, we give some characterizations for Legendre spherical, Legendre normal and Legendre rectifying curves in the 3-dimensional Sasakian space. Furthermore, we show that Legendre spherical curves are also Legendre normal curves. In particular, we prove that the inverse of curvature of a Legendre rectifying curve is a non-constant linear function of the arclength parameter. Effect of KOH pretreatment on lignocellulosic waste to be used as substrate for ethanol production
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3204.html
In present study, Leptochola fusca (kallar grass) and Gossopium herbarium (cotton stalk) were treated with various concentrations of KOH (1%, 1.5%, 2% 2.5% and 3%) for different soaking periods (6h, 12h, 24h and 48h) to expose maximum cellulosic content. The results showed that maximum cellulose exposure and delignification was increased with the increase in concentration of alkali and soaking time. However, maximum cellulose content (Kallar grass 49.01±0.1%, Cotton stalk 56.12±0.1% ) was achieved with 2.5% KOH at 24h and a decline was observed as further increased in concentration of KOH (3%). Moreover maximum delignification (Kallar grass 66.2%, 62.6 cotton stalk) was observed at 3% KOH after 48 h of soaking period. However, these results showed adverse effect of higher concentration of alkali on holocellulose. The cellulosic content of Kallar grass and cotton stalk after pretreatment at suitable conditions indicated that these substrates could be used as promising substrates for saccharification process to produced second generation biofuel.The mechanical properties investigation of the CNT doped YBCO high temperature superconductor with ANSYS finite element software
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3414.html
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In this work we simulated the representative volume element (RVE) of carbon nanotube (CNT) which is surrounded by high temperature superconductor (YBCO) by using ANSYS finite element software. First we considered perfect model (for YBCO and CNT) and investigated the effect of radius, length, and the number of nanotube in Young&rsquo;s modulus of the YBCO by applying force on RVE. Then, a third region an interphase between CNT and YBCO were considered, the Young&rsquo;s modulus of which is between CNT and YBCO. It is demonstrated that there is a critical radius around 6 nm for the CNT and by applying the CNT with a radius smaller than 6 nm, the Young's modulus of the YBCO increases. Also, by increasing the number of the CNTs with radius smaller than 6nm, the Young's modulus and strength of the matrix (YBCO) increases. According to the non-linear analysis, the Young&rsquo;s modulus of the CNT doped YBCO matrix is increased 20-22% more than the undoped YBCO sample. Existence of solutions for a class of Fredholm integral-differential equations via measure of non-compactness
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3206.html
In this present paper, we introduce a measure of non-compactness on the space C^n[a;b]. As an application, we study the problem of existence of solutions of Fredholm integral-differential equations by using the technique of measures of non-compactness in conjunction with Darbo’s fixed point theorem. Further, we give some illustrative examples to verify the effectiveness and applicability of our results.Analysis of couple stress fluid in helical screw rheometer
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3416.html
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In this paper, the flow of couple stress fluid is investigated in a helical screw rheometer (HSR). By unwrapping the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel, the geometry of HSR is approximated as a shallow infinite channel. Both one- and two-dimensional analysis of the problem is presented using rectangular coordinates. In either case an exact solution of the flow problem is presented and the formulas of velocity profile and volumetric flow rate are obtained as a function of couple stress parameter. It is observed that velocity profile decreases in going from Newtonian to couple stress fluid which indicates a decrease in extrusion process for a couple stress fluid in comparison with Newtonian fluid. Moreover, the volumetric flow rate is found to be a decreasing function of couple stress parameter. A Polynomial based Key Distribution Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3219.html
Network coding is a novel concept for improvingnetwork capacity. This additional capacity may be used to increasethroughput or reliability. Also in wireless networks, network codinghas been proposed as a method for improving communication. Thepolynomial based key predistribution scheme of Blom and Blundo etal. has been the basic ingredient for the key establishment forwireless sensor network (WSN). It is tempting to use many random anddifferent instances of polynomial based key predistribution schemefor various parts of the WSN to enhance the efficiency of WSN keyestablishment protocols. But it is not secured in general to usemany instances of Blom-Blundo et al. polynomial based keypredistribution scheme in a WSN key establishment protocol. Thus thepreviously constructed group-based type WSN key predistributionschemes using polynomial based key predistribution scheme areinsecure. In this paper, suitable error correction code is chosenbased on codes of the type which are described as irreducible gradedcyclic CC’s which can algebraically be described by one-sidedprincipal ideals in a noncommutative algebra $A[x; alpha]$, where$A cong mathbb{F}[x]/(x^n-1)$, $mathbb{F}$ is a finite field and$n$ is the length of the code. This leads to the notion of agenerator polynomial just like for cyclic block codes. Similarly aparity check polynomial can be introduced by considering the rightannihilator ideal. This way indicates that the big class of$sigma$-cyclic convolutional codes contains quite some good codesand, therefore, deserves to be investigated further.Bending and buckling of functionally graded Poisson's ratio nanoscale beam based on nonlocal theory
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3417.html
Functionally gradedPoisson&rsquo;s ratio structures have been developed for critical protection. In thispaper, the static bending and buckling of FGPR nanoscale beam are studied basedon the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model, in which both Young&rsquo;s modulus andPoisson&rsquo;s ratio are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction. Byutilizing total potential energy principle, equilibrium equations are derived.In the numerical results, beam models with different material properties areintroduced, and the effects of the nonlocal parameter, aspect ratio and thePoisson&rsquo;s ratio on the deflection and buckling are discussed.UNBOUNDED HYPEREXPANSIVE WEIGHTED COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON L2(Σ)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3220.html
In this note unbounded hyperexpansive weighted composition op-erators are investigated. As a consequence unbounded hyperexpansive mul-tiplication and composition operators are characterized. Some examples areprovided to illustrate concrete application of the main results of the paper.Genotype profiling of seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3418.html
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Seed&ndash;storage proteins are important reservoirs of food and energy which are also involved in the determination of bread making quality. Solubility properties of these proteins are traditionally classified into four classes: albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin. Gliadin and glutenin have also been studied extensively and the genetics and biochemistry are relatively well known. Grain proteins from 18 Pakistani wheat genotypes were checked for genetic diversity evaluation based on 15% sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS&ndash;PAGE). According to quality score, WL&ndash;711, Abadghar, Yacoora, Punjab&ndash;96 and Zardana showed the highest score of 10. All these varieties had subunit 5+10 which had positive correlation for bread-making quality. Different Bioinformatics tools like STRUCTURE, TASSEL AND STATISTIXL were used to examine the data obtained from different varieties and the outcomes were conveyed in the course of a dendrogram revealing the conflicts and similarities among varieties. STRUCTURE was used for the analysis of population structure. This tool performed the grouping of 18 wheat varieties into two groups. TASSEL was used for cluster analysis, which grouped the varieties under study into two main groups containing the same individuals as described by other tools. STATISTIXL performed a cluster analysis using the similarity measure of Jaccard. The results were shown in the form of dendrogram on the basis of group average. Dendrogram revealed two main clusters differentiated as A and B at the distance of about 85%. With the aim of improving flour quality, wheat seed storage protein fingerprinting is used to govern the gluten protein pattern in studies. Nil-Armendariz Condition on skew generalized power series rings
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3221.html
Let $R$ be a ring, $S$ a strictly ordered monoid, and $omega:Srightarrow End(R)$ a monoid homomorphism. The skewgeneralized power series ring $R[[S,omega]]$ is a common generalization of (skew) polynomial rings, (skew)power series rings, (skew) Laurent polynomial rings, (skew) group rings, and Mal’cev–Neumann Laurentseries rings. In the current work, we study the$(S,omega)$-nil Armendariz condition on $R$, a generalization of the standard nil-Armendarizcondition from polynomials and power series to skew generalized power series. We resolve the structure of $(S,omega)$-nil Armendariz ringsand obtain various necessary or sufficient conditions for a ring to be $(S,omega)$-nil Armendariz,unifying and generalizing a number of known nil Armendariz-like conditions in the aforementioned specialcases. For example, we show that left uniserial nilpotent semicomutative rings are nil Armendariz. Moreover, westudy on the relationship between the zip and weak zip properties ofa ring $R$ and these of the ring $R[[S,omega]]$.On Intrinsic Properties of Ricci Flow Curve
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3222.html
Abstract. R.Hamilton defined Ricci flow as evolution of Rie-mannian metrics satisfying a weak parabolic partial differential equation. We have considered and studied Ricci flow as an inte-gral curve of a certain vector field in the manifold of Riemannianmetrics. In this paper we study properties of this integral curveand find some results on the stability of the solution.Behavior of Donor Impurity Binding Energy Confined In a GaAs Constant Total Effective Radius Multi-Shells Quantum Dots: Dielectric Mismatch effects
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3224.html
In this work, we have studied effects the number of wells, quantum dot thickness and dielectric mismatch on binding energy of a single donor impurity which confined in GaAs constant total effective radius multi-shells quantum dots. For the first time, we have reported an oscillating binding energy when numbers of wells increase which can considerably help to alter the properties of modern quantum devices. Oscillations of 1s and 2s binding energies have 180° phase difference while 1s and 3s binding energies oscillate in phase. When outer quantum dot radius R2 increases the amplitudes of the oscillations decreases while by going from 1s to 3s the amplitudes of the oscillations increases. When increases the impurity binding energy decreases. Finally, we have shown that effect of the dielectric mismatch is larger for systems with smaller outer quantum dot radius R2.Degree of Approximation by the $(T.E^1)$ Means of Conjugate Series of Fourier Series in the Hölder Metric
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3225.html
We compute the degree of approximation of functions f^~ in Hw a new Banach space using $(T.E^1)$ summability means of conjugate series of Fourier series. In this paper, we extend the results of Singh and Mahajan [T. Singh and P. Mahajan, Error bound of periodic signals in the H"{o}lder metric, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. Volume 2008 (2008), Article ID 495075, 9 pages] which in turn generalizes the result of Lal and Yadav [S. Lal and K. N. S. Yadav, On degree of approximation of function belonging to the Lipschitz class by $(C,1)(E,1)$ means of its Fourier series, Bull. Cal. Math. Soc. Vol. 93 (2001) 191 -196]. Some corollaries have also been deduced from our main theorem and particular cases.Anisotropic Cosmological Model in presence of holographic dark energy and quintessence
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3226.html
The problem of Bianchi type III universe filled with matter and holographic dark energy (DE) components is investigated. In order to obtain a determinant solution, special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (1983) has been considered. The relationship between holographic dark energy model with the quintessence dark energy has been established. Quintessence potential and dynamics of the quintessence scalar field are reconstructed, which describes the accelerated phase of theexpanding universe.Characterizations for Slant Ruled Surfaces in Dual Space
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3227.html
In this paper, we study slant ruled surfaces in dual space by considering E. Study’s mapping. We consider ruled surfaces as spherical curves lying on dual unit sphere and study the notion of “slant ruled surface” by means of dual Darboux frame and obtain some dual characterizations for which the real parts of them coincide with results given by Önder (2013).A class of hereditarily l_p Banach spaces without Schur property
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3228.html
We introduce a new class of hereditarily l_p Banach spaces whichfails the Schur property. In particular, for p = 1 these spaces arefurther examples of hereditarily l_1 Banach spaces failing the SchurpropertyPeristaltic transport of MHD Walters B fluid through porous medium with heat transfer
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3232.html
This paper is devoted to the study of the peristaltic flow of a magnetohydrodynamic Walters B fluid through porous medium in a vertical asymmetric channel with heat transfer. The flow is investigated in the wave frame of reference moving with constant velocity with the wave. The non-linear governing partial differential equations are solved using perturbation technique by taking wave number as a small parameter. The expressions for pressure difference and frictional forces are calculated using numerical integration. The graphs are plotted to discuss the variation of velocity, pressure gradient, temperature, heat transfer coefficient, pressure difference, frictional force and trapping for the different flow parameters. It is observed from our analysis that, the trapping bolus and pumping rate increases with increase of heat generation parameter. In all situations the behaviour of Hartmann number and Darcy number always opposite.Characterization of thermophilic alkaline lipase produced by Staphylococcus aureus suitable for leather and detergent industries
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3233.html
Over 30 different water and soil samples were screened for lipase producing bacteria but only Staphylococcus aureus isolated from barbeque shop soil, produces lipase in highly alkaline conditions i.e. pH 11. Moreover, cotton seed derived pharm medium found to be most suitable for both growth and lipase production when compared with other five media. In addition, media supplemented with olive oil and mustard oil stimulated lipase production. Stirring rate was found to be directly influence the bacterial growth and lipase synthesis. Furthermore, isolated enzyme gave highest activity of 90 mU at pH of 11.0 and 315 mU at 52°C. Isolated lipase was found to be a metalloenzyme and was tolerant to most of the inorganic salts and detergents tested. Maximum lipase activity was determined in the presence of CaCl2 and Tween 80 while it was severely inactivated in the presence of SDS. The molecular weight of the staphylococcal lipase was found to be ~25 kDa. This highly alkaline thermostable lipase producing S. aureus can be used for biotechnological and industrial applications.Comparing two numerical methods for approximating a new giving up smoking model with fractional order derivative
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3235.html
In a recent paper [1], the authors presented a new model of giving up smoking model. In the present paper, the dynamics of this new model involving the Caputo derivative was studied numerically. For this purpose, generalized Euler method and the multistep generalized differential transform method are employed to compute accurate approximate solutions to this new giving up smoking model of fractional order. The unique positive solution for the fractional order model is presented. A comparative study between these two methods and the well known Runge-Kutta method is presented in the case of integer-order derivatives. The solutions obtained are also presented graphically.Constructing Rod and Beam equation with fundamental mode and physical parameters of polynomial form
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3252.html
In this paper, we construct Rod and Euler Bernoulli Beam equation which the fundamental mode and the physical parameters are polynomial. Also for a class of Beam equation that the product of the linear mass density and the second moment of the cross-sectional area is constant, we approximate the physical parameters by Lagrange interpolation polynomial and construct them with one fundamental mode.Isolation and identification of cellulolytic and ethanologenic bacteria from soil
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3254.html
In this study, five different strains of bacteria were isolated and identified from soil samples cultivated on sugarcane bagasse as substrate in submerged fermentation. These bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing which revealed that they were Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus lichniformis, Paenibacillus dendritiformis, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These bacteria were screened for cellulolytic and ethanologenic potentials using sugarcane bagasse as substrate. All the bacteria were found cellulolytic and ethanologenic. Bacillus pumilis strain produced maximum cellulase while Bacillus cereus yielded maximum ethanol. The results indicated that these strains could be used for second generation biofuels production.A Note on Backward Prediction For Multivariate ARMA Processes
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3255.html
Estimation of the past missing or unrecorded data (backward prediction) is very important and it can be helpful in many applications. In this paper, backward prediction for multivariate ARMA processes is obtained by applying the forward representation for the processes which considerably simplifies the procedure.Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Hydrazone Schiff-bases; Preparation, Spectral Characterisation and Biological Study
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3274.html
New isatinic hydrazone Schiff-base ligands namely; furan-2-carboxylic acid (2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-ylidene)-hydrazide) (L1), thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-ylidene)-hydrazide (L2) and 2-(pyridine-2-yl-hydrazono)-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-one) (L3) are reported. The ligands were prepared by the condensation of furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide (L1), thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide (L2), and 2-hydrazino pyridine (L3) with isatine. Monomeric complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligands. The ligands and their nine new complexes of the general formulae [M(Ln)2]Cl2 (where M= Co(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II); n= L1, L2 and L3), were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C NMR), elemental analysis, metal content, magnetic measurement and molar conductance. These studies revealed the formation of six coordinate complexes, in which the geometry about metal atom is a distorted octahedral. Biological activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Ecoli (G-) are evaluated. The effects of prepared compounds depend on the type of tested bacteria. It is clear that, the ligands and their metal complexes have a potential effect on the gram positive (G+) and gram negative (G-) strains of the tested bacteria.Molecular identification of a new Dunaliella salina strain, and its carotenogenesis in response to nitrate
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3275.html
A new strain of Dunaliella from Maharlu salt lake, south east of Shiraz, Iran was isolated and morphologically identified as Dunaliella salina strain, SUDCC M01-91/4. An integrated approach using both molecular and physiological attributes were used to identify the isolated strain as Dunaliella salina. A novel primer amplifying conserved region of 18S rDNA is introduced for identifying Dunaliella genus. Constructed dendrogram revealed a phylogenetic relationship between the isolated strains and some other β-carotene hyper-producer species. Changes in physiological parameters such as growth, pigments content and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in terms of lipid peroxidation, by isolated strain in response to different concentrations of potassium nitrate in culture media were studied. The increase in β-carotene production in the present study under nitrate deficiency could be due to increase in ROS production as revealed in high lipid peroxidation. Physiological responses of the isolated strain to nitrate deficiency support the morphological and molecular identification of the strain as carotenogenic D. salina.Hybrid Functions of Lagrange polynomials and Block-Pulse Functions for Solving Integro-Partial Differential Equations
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3377.html
In this paper a two-dimensional hybrid function of Lagrangepolynomials and Block-Pulse-Functions (BPFs) is constructed andused to solve an integro-partial differential equation. Thismethod is novel and the numerical examples show its accuracy andvalidity.Population dynamics of the sparid fish, Argyrops spinifer (Teleostei: Sparidae) in coastal waters of the Persian Gulf
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3378.html
Some of the population characteristics of Argyrops spinifer collected from the coastal waters of Bushehr province (Persian Gulf) were investigated from June 2010 to May 2011. A total of 622 specimens were taken from Bushehr harbor and transferred to the laboratory on ice for further considerations. Total length, body weight and sex were recorded for each specimen and their sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination. Some of the otoliths were cut and age reading was performed by three investigators to assure the accuracy of the readings and age validation. In males, total length ranged between 15-61.2 (24.04±6.62 SD) cm and total weight between 77.09-3450.00 (325.20±320.45) g. In females, total length ranged between 13.50-64.20 (24.61±7.86) cm and total weight ranged between 52.48-4162.00 (369.66±465.03) g. Sex was determined in 532 mature specimens, among which about 44% were males and 56% were females. The age of males and females ranged from 2+ to 25+ and 2+ to 21+ years, respectively, indicating it as a long-lived species. The estimates of asymptotic length (L∞) and the growth coefficient (K) of males were 67.90 cm and 0.082 per year, respectively. Females asymptotic length was 82.10 cm and their growth coefficient was 0.061 per year. Length-weight relationship was described as W= 0.060 TL2.648 (r2= 0.98) for males and W= 0.054 TL2.681 (r2= 0.98) for females, indicating a negative allometric growth pattern in both sexes (p < 0.05). The condition factor was 2 ± 0.14 for all the specimens.A Note On Structure of Certain Real Quadratic Number Fields
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3381.html
The aim of this paper is to determine the general forms of the continued fraction expansions of the quadratic irrational number which is integral basis element of Z[√d] , also determine which are the coefficents of fundamental units of the real quadratic number field Q(√d) by using a new explicit formulation. Fundamental units can be calculated with this algorithm in an easy way in the period which is equal to 9 in the continued fraction expansion of for such quadratic fields where d≡1(mod4) is a positive square free integer.Moreover, some results will be given for both Yokoi’s invariant value of which is defined in terms of coefficents of fundamental unit and the class number of the real quadratic number fields Q(√d) as well as reduced indefinite quadratic forms f_d.Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oils of Cleome oxypetala Boiss. From Iran
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3382.html
The hydro-distilled volatile oil obtained from aerial parts of Cleome oxypetala Boiss. was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen compounds were identified, representing 99.27% of the total oil composition, with Sandaracopimaradien-3β-ol (71.9%) being the main component. Oil antimicrobial activity was carried out using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The best antibacterial activity was observed against Escherichia coli with MIC value of 32 μg/mL. Also, this oil showed good DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC50:7.3 ± 0.4 mg/mL).Biochemical and physiological response of Salsola arbuscula callus to salt stress
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3383.html
Salsola arbuscula as a halophytic plant which is tolerant to high salinity stress. The present study is an attempt to determine the extent to which the callus of this plant is tolerant to salt stress indicated by the amounts of proline, total protein, carbohydrates and inorganic ions including Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca2+. The plant seeds were cultured in MS medium for 2 months and the resulted seedling explants were transferred to media with different hormonal concentrations. Then the produced calli were transferred to the previous medium with 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 mM of NaCl. Being kept in the culture room at 25 ± 2ºC with a 12-h photoperiod (irradiance of 800 µmolm-2S-1) for one month, calli were measured in terms of their salt stress parameters. The obtained results indicated that the best medium for callus induction was MS + 2,4-D (1mg/L) + Kin (1mg/L). The proline, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and chloride levels of concentration increased up to 300 mM of NaCl, but decreased significantly in the 400 mM of NaCl. However, potassium and calcium ion concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio reduced noticeably in the salt-stressed calli compared to control medium. It should be noted however that in terms of K+/Na+ ratio, the various salt treatments did not differ significantly from each other, thereby, indicating callus tolerance to salt stress. Thus, salt stress tolerant callus is not because of vacuolar compartmentation, but rather is due to increasing osmolarity and synthesis of different transcription factors and stress proteins.New inequalities for local fractional integrals
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3429.html
In this paper, we establish double inequalities for twice local fractional differentiable mappings on fractal sets R^{α} (0Synthesis and biological Evaluation of the toxicity of grafted 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3462.html
This work presents chemical functionalization of multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) through chemical modifications. Antibacterial conjugated MWCNTs were synthesized involving the sequential steps of carboxylation. Formation of the active intermediates using Hydroxy benzo triazole (HOBt) was done in order to achieve conjugated 2-mercapto benzo imidazole (MWCNT-h) as the final compound. The modification of MWCNTs with antibacterial drug was checked by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermo gravimetric analysis. Size and surface characteristics of chemically modified MWCNTs were monitored by scanning electron microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Antimicrobial activity of functionalized and carboxyl MWCNTs was studied on two Gram-negative bacteria as well as one Gram positive bacteria. The MIC results show that functionalized MWCNTs with anti-bacterial drugs have more effective results than bare drug and carboxyl MWCNTs individually against all studied bacteria.CHEBYSHEV PSEUDO-SPECTRAL METHOD FOR BRATU'S PROBLEM
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3473.html
In this paper, the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral (CPS) method is proposed for solving a class of boundary value problems. Especially, we apply the CPS method for the Bratu's problem and obtain an approximate solution for this problem. The obtained solution can approximate the exact solution very accurately. By providing some theorems, we survey the feasibility andconvergence of approximate solutions. The approximate results are compared with many other available methods. By calculating absolute errors, we show efficiency of the method with respect to the other methods.On Bivariate Generalized Linear Failure Rate-Power Series Class of Distributions
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3474.html
Recently it has been observed that the bivariate generalized linear failure rate distributioncan be used quite effectively to analyze lifetime data in two dimensions. This paperintroduces a more general class of bivariate distributions. We refer to this new class ofdistributions as bivariate generalized linear failure rate power series model. This new classof bivariate distributions contains several lifetime models such as: generalized linear failurerate-power series, bivariate generalized linear failure rate and bivariate generalized linearfailure rate geometric distributions as special cases among others. The construction andcharacteristics of the proposed bivariate distribution are presented along with estimationprocedures for the model parameters based on maximum likelihood. The marginal andconditional laws are also studied. We present an application to the real data set where ourmodel provides a better fit than other models.Remotest points and approximate remotest points in metric spaces
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3482.html
In this paper, we introduce new concepts of remotest pointsand approximate remotest points for a cyclic map T and give existence results of the remotest and approximate remotest points for such maps in metricspaces.Orientation dependence of the charge transfer cross section in the collision of positrons with H2+ under the first Born approximation and implementing a Fourier transform technique(1)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3494.html
Charge transfer from the hydrogen molecular ion by positron impact is studied using Fourier transform techniques. The interaction amplitude and the differential cross section for the reaction are obtained within the first Born approximation. The interference patterns and the effect of the orientation angle of the molecular axis are analyzed, and compared with the available data in the literature.N-homogeneous and LH generalized topological spaces
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3504.html
In this paper, we introduce and study strongly n-homogeneous, n-homogeneousand locally homogeneous generalized topological spaces. We give many prop-erties, examples and counterexamples concerning these concepts. In particular,we give several results of nite n-homogeneous generalized topological spaces.Non-clonal dissemination of Extended-spectrum beta lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of clinical origin
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3506.html
Monitoring the emergence and transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains is important for infection control worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 47 extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains of clinical origin by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and also to ascertain the presence of class 1 integrons amongst them. ERIC sequences are 127-bp imperfect palindromes that occur in multiple copies in the genomes of enteric bacteria. The ERIC-PCR profile generated showed polymorphism in the studied strains. Based on the ERIC-PCR profile, P. aeruginosa strains were grouped into 23 types. The major genotype designated as type L1, accounted for 10.6% (5/47) of samples. Class 1 integrons were detected in 8 of the 47 clinical isolates. Further, the integron-carrying isolates were found to display higher minimum inhibitory concentration against tested antibiotics. Optimization of antimicrobial use and control of infection is recommended to prevent the increase in the population of drug resistant organisms.Multi objective Solid Transportation Problem In Uncertain Environment
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3508.html
Although new information technologies decrease information and transaction costs, transportation problem of physical goods are still relevant. Globalization of trade increased the uncertainty that companies are facing, it also increased the importance of supply chain management in world economies drastically. Because transportation systems are crucial for operation management, the problem to find efficient and sustainable solutions under such uncertain environments needs to be studied. Thus, this paper focuses on “multiobjective Solid Transportation Problem (STP) in uncertain environment” and presents some approach to find the compromise optimal solution of multiobjective STP. Then, compatible with uncertainty, fuzzy programming and some techniques of the fuzzy set theory are implemented to solve the problem by using Maple 17.02. A numerical example is executed and presented here to illustrate suggested procedures.[benzylamine-K2-C,N]1,2-bis (diphenylphosphino)- propane -k2-P,P] palladium}perchlorate, mono-nuclear complex of ortho-palladated derived from benzylamine
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3522.html
This work reports the preparation of the mononuclear derivative [Pd(C6H4CH2NH2) L](ClO4) (L= dppp). The centrosymmetric mononuclear palladium complexe, was obtained by the reaction of palladium(II) acetate with benzylamine in toluene produced the acetate cyclopalladated dimer of benzylamine. Metathesis reaction of these acetate-bridged cyclopalladated complex with NaCl inwater and acetone gave N,C-orthopalladated [Pd(C6H4CH2NH2)(µ-Cl)]2 complex, which reacts with, NaClO4/dppp, to give the mononuclear derivative. The orthopalladation complexe were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 31P, and 13C NMR. The structures of N,C-metalated complexe 3 and were determined by X-ray diffraction study.Solutions for space-time fractional (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3524.html
This paper aims to apply conformable fractional derivative for converting space-time fractional (2 + 1)- dimensional dispersive long wave equations into ordinary differential equations that can be solved to obtain the solitary wave solutions by using the G'/G-expansion method. A parametric study of some physical parameters involved in such problems is performed to illustrate the influence of these parameters on the velocity profiles.IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED PLANT EXTRACTS FROM PAKISTAN
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3532.html
Screening of ethno medicinal plants is a pre-requisite for discovery of new drug components. Polar as well as nonpolar extracts from four important plants (Cedrela serrata, Hedera helix, Hedera nepalensis and Cuscuta reflexa) were tested against two gram positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) and three gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial strains as well as two pathogenic fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium sp.). Bacterial and fungal pathogens were tested by using agar well diffusion and agar tube dilutions methods respectively. Methanol extracts from all selected plant species showed activity against all tested bacterial strains. Maximum inhibition was shown by Cuscuta reflexa methanol extract (19.2 mm) against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Inhibition ranges observed for other methanol extracts were 12-15 mm, 12-16 mm and 9-16 mm in Hedera nepalensis, Hedera helix and Cedrela serrata respectively. Chloroform extract of Cuscuta reflexa inhibited all bacterial strains with maximum inhibition zone of 21mm against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Chloroform extract from other plant species proved inactive against all bacterial strains except Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. In the case of fungal strains Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited maximum (78%) by chloroform extract of Hedera helix, however, other extracts showed moderate or low activity. In conclusion active extracts of present study can be suitable candidates for new drug discovery in future.MHD flow of a viscous Fluid between Dilating and Squeezing Porous Walls
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3539.html
In this article laminar flow of an isothermal, incompressible, electrically conductingviscous fluid has beenstudied. The flow isconsidered through a rectangular domain of infinitelength and bounded by two orthogonally moving porous walls. The wallsenable the fluid to enter or exit during the successive contractions or expansions. Formulation of the problem is achieved in form of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation.The solution of the formulated equation is approximated by using Variation of ParametersMethod (VPM). The said method is an excellent tool to solve a verity of scientific and engineering problems. It is also free from the essential existence of a large or a small parameter and many other restrictions that some of the other solution schemes have. To investigate the effects of non-dimensional wall deformation , permeation Reynolds number R and magnetic parameterM on the flow field, graphical results are presented. The study of the flow between dilating or squeezing porous walls is a drastic simplification of the biological fluids transport through dilating or squeezing vessels. It is worth mentioning that the cases studied by [1] and [2] can be obtained as the special cases by setting M and 𝛼 to be zero, respectively.Strongly Harmonizable ARMA SalphaS Models
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3540.html
It is well known that no strongly harmonizable SS process assumes classical ARMA representation with respect to a SalphaS noise sequence with independent values. In this article we introduce certain strongly harmonizable ARMA SalphaS models, in which the noise sequences have orthogonal values in certain Hilbert spaces. Our study on strongly harmonizable ARMA SalphaS models involves parameter estimation, simulation, moving average representation, regularity and prediction. We generate the corresponding noise
series, that appear to be challenging and interesting.Analytical Solution for Optimal Control by the Second kind Chebyshev Polynomials Expansion
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3541.html
Second kind Chebyshev polynomials are modified set of defined Chebyshev polynomials by a slightly different generating function. This paper presents new and efficient algorithm for achieving an analytical approximate solution to optimal control problems. The proposed solution is based on state parameterization, such that the state variable is approximated by the second kind Chebyshev polynomials with unknown coefficients. At first, the equation of motion, boundary conditions and performance index are changed into some algebraic equations. This task converts the optimal control problem into an optimization problem, which can then be solved easily. The presented technique approximates the control and state variables as a function of time. After optimizing, the system is converted into a feedback mode for having the closed loop profits. The results proved the algorithm convergence. Finally by analyzing two numerical examples, the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing two different methods is demonstrated.Preliminary assessment of heavy metals contamination in water and wastewater of Asaluyeh port (Persian Gulf)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3543.html
The impacts of pollutants on the marine environment of the Persian Gulf may be significant due to its shallow depth, limited circulation, high salinity and temperature. Discharge of industrial and urban effluents, shipping, oil spills and recent wars in the Persian Gulf are of the major causes of its pollution. In this study, the total concentration of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn in water and wastewater samples of the Asaluyeh port, located on the northern edge of the Persian Gulf are investigated. The results demonstrated that the concentration of As, Cu, Mo, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in water samples exceed the world sea water average. In addition, the maximum observed concentrations of heavy metals occur in water and wastewater samples in the Basatin coast, Nakhle Taghi dock, Shirino industrial complex and 5th refinery reject water. Significant differences in concentrations of Cu and Zn could be found among the sampling sites. The mean concentration of Ni, Pb and Cd in the water samples was relatively higher than those in some other regions of the Persian Gulf. The statistical results obtained from Mann–Whitney along with factor analysis support the results.Copper zirconium phosphate as an efficient catalyst for multi-component reactions in solvent-free conditions
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3558.html
Copper zirconium phosphate (ZPCu) nanoparticles were used as a convenient and efficient catalyst for multi-component reactions (MCRs) in solvent-free conditions. The catalyst is easy to prepare and shows interesting catalytic properties. The catalyst was characterized by some instrumental techniques such as ICP-OES, EDS, XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, Py-FTIR, SEM, and TEM. These analyses revealed that the interlayer distance in the catalyst increased from 7.6 to 8.8 Å when Cu2+ was intercalated between the layers, whereas the crystallinity of the material was reduced. The steric and electronic properties of the different substrates had a significant influence on the reaction conditions. These protocols have the advantages of inexpensive materials, mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, short reaction times, simple and clean work-up. This work introduces a new application of this catalyst, not described in the literature up to now. Also, the catalyst can be recovered and reused for three times without a significant loss in its activity and selectivity.Algebraic Crossed Products by Partial Actions of Inverse Semigroups
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3559.html
In this work, for an inverse semigroup G and a partial action π on an algebra A we will define the crossed product A×πG as an enveloping C* -algebra of a suitable *-algebra. At the end, we will prove that the definition of crossed product we present here is equivalent to the one introduced in [4].IDENTITIES OF SYMMETRY FOR DEGENERATE EULER POLYNOMIALS AND ALTERNATING GENERALIZED FALLING FACTORIAL SUMS
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3560.html
Eight basic identities of symmetry in three variables, which are
related to degenerate Euler polynomials and alternating generalized falling
factorial sums, are derived. These are the degenerate versions of the symmetric
identities in three variables obtained in a previous paper. The derivations of
identities are based on the p-adic integral expression of the generating function
for the degenerate Euler polynomials and the quotient of integrals that can be
expressed as the exponential generating function for the alternating generalized
falling factorial sums. Those eight basic identities and most of their corollaries
are new, since there have been results only about identities of symmetry in
two variables.A New Class of Skewed Lifetime Distributions with Increasing Failure Rate
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3565.html
In this paper, a new class of unimodal positively skewed lifetime distributions with increasing failure rate is introduced. Some theoretical and reliability properties of this class are studied. Parameter estimation is also presented using the method of maximum likelihood and the method of moments. It is shown that the proposed model is better fitted to a real lifetime data set relative to previous introduced models.Allelopathic analysis of four ecotypes of Ajowan
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3569.html
In order to study the allelopathic effects of seed extracts and essential oil of four ecotypes of Ajowan, (Trachyspermum copticum) on seed germination and shoot and root length, proline and sugar concentration of Zea mays (as monocotyledon) and Lepidium sativum (as dicotyledon) were evaluated Three levels of Ajowan seed ethanolic extract (2.5, 5 and 10mg/mL) and three levels of essential oil (2.5, 5 and 10%) were prepared. Seed germination and shoot and root length were significantly reduced by all concentrations but proline and sugar were increased. The lowest increase and the highest decrease were for Kerman ecotype extract, whereas the Mashhad ecotype extract showed the highest increase. Ajowan seed extract effects on L. sativum was more than Z. mays. Ajowan seed essential oil completely inhibited the germination and seedling growth of the two examined plants. The inhibitory effects may be related to the presence of allelochemicals, including thymol, γ-terpinene and p-cymene of ajwain seed. Maybe optimum concentrations of ajwain seed extracts could be used in herbicides against weeds. The significant effects of four ecotypes of Ajowan indicate that there was variation in allelopathic activity among the Ajowan ecotypes.The Fibonacci-Circulant Sequences and their Applications
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3570.html
In this paper, we define the recurrence sequences by using the circulant matrices which are obtained from the characteristic polynomial of the Fibonacci sequence. Then we obtain miscellaneous properties of these sequences. Also, we consider the cyclic groups which are generated by the generating matrices and the auxiliary equations of the defined recurrence sequences and then we examine the orders of these groups. Furthermore, we extend the defined sequences to groups. Finally, we obtain the lengths of the periods of the extended sequences in the polyhedral groups (2,3,3) and (n,2,2) as applications of the results obtained.Cosmological model with Ultra-relativistic ideal gas using gravitational and thermo-mechanical Hamiltonian formulation
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3571.html
A brief review of the Hamiltonian theory of self gravitating perfect fluid, which has been established by Kijowski et al. (1990) [1], has been discussed in this work. The formulation of the spherically symmetric cosmological problem has been derived. The most general 3-dimensional metric in the case of spherically symmetric space-time has been considered. In addition, the parameters which govern the dynamics have been fixed. The problem of homogeneous Universe has been considered for the Ultrarelativistic ideal gas. The dynamical equations have been derived. Three analytical solutions have been obtained.Total restrained geodetic number of graphs
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3572.html
A geodetic set $S$ in a graph $G$ is called a total restrainedgeodetic set if the induced subgraphs $G[S]$ and $G[V-S]$have no isolated vertex.The minimum cardinality of a total restrained geodetic set in $G$is the total restrained geodetic number and is denoted by$g_{tr} (G)$. In this paper we initiate the study of the totalrestrained geodetic number in graphs. We first characterize all connected graphswith no extreme vertex and large total restrained geodetic number, and thenwe present some realizable results.Semi-distality and related topics in generalized shift dynamical systems
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3575.html
In the following text, we prove that the generalized shift dynamical system $(X^Gamma,sigma_varphi)$ with nonempty $Gamma$, ﬁnite discrete $X$ with at least two elements, and arbitrary map $varphi:GammatoGamma$ is semi-distal if and only if all points of $Gamma$ are quasi periodic points of $varphi$; moreover for countable $Gamma$, semi-distality and almost distality of $(X^Gamma,sigma_varphi)$ are equivalent.Also the following statements are equivalent:• The generalized shift $(X^Gamma,sigma_varphi)$ is pointwise minimal;• The generalized shift dynamical system $(X^Gamma,sigma_varphi)$ is distal;• The map $varphi:GammatoGamma$ is pointwise periodic (i.e, $Per(varphi)=Gamma$).RBFs meshless method of lines for time dependent PDEs with decomposition of interior and boundary data centers
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3576.html
The meshless method of lines (MOL) is proposed for the numerical solution of time dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). After approximating spatial derivatives of equation and boundary condition by radial basis functions the resulting system will be a system of differential-algebraic equations. The differential-algebraic equation is converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by decomposing of interior and boundary centers and replacing expansion coeffcients of boundary centers as a function of interior ones. Computational experiments are performed for two-dimensional Burgers' equationsand Brusselator reaction-diffusion system. The numerical results compete very well with the analytical solutions.Finite Fractional Sturm-Liouville Transforms For Generalized Fractional Derivatives
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3577.html
In this article, we introduce the regular and singular fractional Sturm-Liouville problems with the Hilfer and Hilfer-Prabhakar derivatives. We show that these problems with corresponding boundary conditions have real eigenvalues and their eigenfunctions are orthogonal. Also, the finite fractional Sturm-Liouville transforms and their inversion formulas are established, and as an application, the formal solution of the fractional Laplace equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates is obtained using the finite Legendre transform.A mathematical model of cloud computing in the economic fractional dynamic system
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3578.html
Computing is experiencing much change from client/server to the cloud. The interest for cloud infrastructures is not only introduce in the business domain, but likewise encompasses to government activities. In this work, we suggest a new dynamic system, equilibrium of cloud computing based on fractional calculus. In our preparation, each agent (i.e., each company or government agency) determines between going to appliance the customary on-site computing pattern" and acting to the cloud computing model". In this model, separately agent will optimize an entire cost that involves of two mechanisms: the cost of implementing the cloud computing pattern and the effort cost of moving to the cloud computing pattern. We shall impose various types of two-dimensional fractional systems. The method of finding the solution is subjected to bifurcation and bifurcation boundaries in order to perform a good result in the cloud computing. This method is generalized to the fractional calculus. Therefore, the outcome lets us to training the dynamic evolution of the density of cloud computing.Elliptic Curves and Circle Chords
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3589.html
Consider the circle (C_R:x^2+y^2=R^2) where (R) varies in the rationals. We show the existence of infinitely many pairs of rational points on $C_R$ so that the corresponding Euclidean distance is rational, and make a connection between the problem of finding such pairs and finding rational points in the plane at rational distance. Further, providing Euclidian distance of any two not necessarily rational points $u, v$ on (C_R) is rational, we relate it to an elliptic curve defined over (Bbb Q(u,v)). Characterizing the notions, we are led to construct infinite families of rank-one elliptic curves (E_{u, v}) over (Bbb Q) with torsion group (Bbb Z/2Bbb ZtimesBbb Z/8Bbb Z) tying the previous result obtained independently by Atkin-Morain cite{A-M}, Kulesz cite{Kul} and Campbell-Goins cite{C-G}. We also find, assuming the parity conjecture, five rank-three examples of these curves.Testing the Difference between Two Independent Time Series Models
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3590.html
In some situations, for example in biology, economic, electronic, finance and management, researchers wish to determine whether the two time series are generated by the same stochastic mechanism or their random behavior differs. In this work, the asymptotic distribution for the difference of two independent ARMA coefficients is established. The presented method can be used to derive the asymptotic confidence set for the difference of coefficients and hypothesis testing for the equality of two time series. Then the Monte Carlo simulation study is provided to investigate the performance of proposed method. The performance of the new method is comparable with alternative method.SCREENING AND POTENTIAL OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE IN GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA FROM HOSPITAL WASTEWATER
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3591.html
The antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram negative bacterial isolated from four different sampling sites of the hospital wastewater at Lucknow city was evaluated. Of the 200 Gram negative bacterial isolates tested, marked antibiotic resistances (over 90%) were observed for amoxicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, nalidixic acid and penicillin depending upon the sampling sites. All Gram negative bacterial isolates also showed multiple resistance patterns (2-13 antibiotics) in different combination of antibiotics. The MAR index ranges were found (0.01-0.86) indicating the high risk of environmental contamination. The findings indicated that pollution of aquatic environments from different sources of the city may have a significant contribution on the emergence and dissemination of resistance in Gram negative bacteria as well as other pathogenic bacteria in the hospital wastewater. This over use of antibiotics as well as other pharmaceuticals in the hospital and their introduction into the aquatic environment may have a potential public health risk.Osteological features of eurypterygian pelvic girdles
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3592.html
The osteology of the pelvic girdle skeleton in representatives of several families of eurypterygian fishes were studied. The pelvic girdle is made up of a pair of ventral plates (basipterygia). Each plate consists of a central part, a median process, a membranous anterior process, an endochondral posterior process, wings, radials, and pelvic spines and rays. Splints are present in some primitive taxa. The central part is an ossification of the original pelvic cartilage that usually anteriorly retains a cartilage tip and posteriorly forms an articulation surface for the fin radials and rays. The membranous wings constitute an internal, an external dorsal, an external ventral, and a ventral wing. Not all the processes and wings are present in all eurypterygian fishes. It is the elaboration and orientation of wings that leads to its complexity in higher fishes. Primitively, in euteleosts, there are a number of autogenous radials. The medialmost radial is the largest and associated or fused to the base of the innermost ray and other radials are autogenous.Synthesis and characterization of new tetradentate ligands
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3593.html
Four new tetradentate ligands 1-(Thiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-{(E)-[(thiophen-2-yl)methyl]iminomethyl}benzylidene)methanamine (1), 2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-{(E )-[2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl]iminomethyl}benzylidene)ethanamine (2), 1,4 Bis[(2pyridylethyl)iminomethyl]benzene (3) and 1,4-Bis[(2pyridylethyl)iminoethyl]benzene (4) have been prepared by a 1:2 molar condensation of an aromatic dialdehyde (terephthalaldehyde) with thiophen-2-ylmethanamine, 2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethanamine, pyridin-2-ylmethanamine and 2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanamine. The ligands were characterised on the basis of their elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-mass spectrometry and for ligands 1, 2 and 4 also by X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures reveal that the ligands exist as discrete molecules with an average C-N bond distance of 1.2656 Å which is consistent with C=N double bonding.Sampling Plan Using EWMA Statistic of Regression Estimator
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3595.html
It is well-known that a regression estimator of the mean quality characteristic would be more informative when a correlated auxiliary variable is available. In this manuscript, we propose a new lot acceptance sampling plan based on the exponentially weighted average (EWMA) statistic of the regression estimator. It is assumed that the two variables of quality characteristic of interest and an auxiliary variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. Two cases of sigma known and sigma unknown are considered separately. We provide the tables for industrial use for various values of the smoothing constant. The efficiency of the proposed plan is discussed over the existing acceptance sampling plan based on EWMA.Ameliorative effects of nitric oxide on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under water stress
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3611.html
AbstractThe ameliorative effects of nitric oxide on oilseed rape seedlings, Okapy cultivar, under drought condition were investigated. Water stress at 60% and 30% field capacity, increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content in oilseed rape leaves. Among the different concentrations ( 25, 50, 75 and 100 µM) of sodium nitroprusside used, spraying plants leaves with 25µM sodium nitroprusside a NO donor, reduced the damaging effects of water stress which was reflected by a decrease in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content in leaves. Drought stress enhanced leaves superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities but decreased catalase activity. Sodium nitroprusside treatment (25µM) had a positive effect on antioxidant enzymes under water stress. At higher sodium nitroprusside concentrations, its ameliorative effects on water stress were decreased and the oxidative damages to the leaves were sustained. The reduction in drought induced oxidative damages by NO in oilseed rape is most likely mediated by the NO ability to induce and increase the activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes.Graded Lie Algebroids: A Framework For Geometrization Of Matter And Forces Unification
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3612.html
In this paper, we introduce a geometric structure that is capable of describingmatter and forces simultaneously. This structure can be established by usingthe notion of Z2-graded Lie algebroid structures and graded semi-Riemannianmetrics on them. Using calculus of variations, we derive field equationsfrom the extended Hilbert-Einstein action. The derived equations containYang-Mills and Einstein field equations simultaneously. The even part of thegraded Lie algebroid describes forces and its odd part is related to matterand particles.Morphological-based variation of the fish populations using Groupwise Registration; applied to microscopic images of fish otolith using Aphanius dispar as a model
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3618.html
The shape of hard structures such as scales and otoliths are often used to study fish population variations, palaeosystematics, and to discuss evolutionary changes. To date, different semi- and fully-automated techniques have been developed to study shape variations, while none of them provided textural information from image samples. They can also be tedious to human error. Therefore, new methods are always required to provide this information precisely. Here we used a new framework as groupwise registration to evaluate if it is suitable to study the inter- and intra-population variations. To do this objective, we used the otoliths of a killifish, Aphanius dispar (Rüppell, 1829), as a model. This approach relies on visual comparison of the all otolith images from six isolated populations from Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. The examined framework provides a pair of representative image and perturbation map from each population data set. The representative image is optimally close to all input samples and the perturbation map indicates the local variance over the populations. Furthermore, this framework allows for measuring morphometric indices by the finding corresponding points on the input samples, which eliminates the labor of repeating manual measurement and reduces human interaction error. As results, the representative image and the perturbation maps were found to be considerably useful to study differentiation among A. dispar populations. This method is not only sufficient to investigate morphology of the otoliths, but also can widely be used to study other hard structures in fish and fisheries studies and paleontological investigations.Allometric growth pattern and morphological changes of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Schultze, 1823) during the early development
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3619.html
The early development of the angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) was studied from 1 up to 51 day post hatching under culture conditions. The left side of specimens was photographed and morphometric parameters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, eye diameter, caudal peduncle and body depth were measured using the software ImageJ. Allometric growth pattern was calculated as a power function of total length and the patterns in allometry were described by the growth coefficient to reveal important steps in the species’ early life history. In addition, the anatomical changes were described. The early development of this species was divided into four stages; the eleuthero-embryo, propterygio-larval, pterygio-larval and juvenile. During the first two stages, the growth rate of the head and tail was higher, whereas, in last two stages, the growth rate of the head decreased and the growth rate of the trunk increased, especially at the juvenile stage. This body shape change revealed priorities to develop the organs related to vital functions such as branchial respiration, nervous system and exogenous feeding during preflexion stages (TL=4.52 to 5.54 mm). The growth pattern of the trunk turned to relatively positive allometric growth pattern during the juvenile stages reflected in a deeper body shape along with developed long dorsal and anal fins and higher position of the pectoral fins, an adaptation to its adult life style. The results confirmed this fact that morphological development and growth patterns during early life stages in P. scalare closely match its immediate required function.Prediction of subsidence over oil and gas fields with use of influence functions (case study: South Pars gas field, Iran)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3621.html
Withdrawal of oil and gas from reservoirs causes a decrease in pore pressure and an increase in effective stress which cause reservoir compaction. Reservoir compaction will result in surface subsidence through the elastic response of the subsurface. In order to determine the subsidence above a hydrocarbon field, the reservoir compaction must first be calculated and then the effect of this compaction on the surface be modeled. The use of the uniaxial compaction theory is more prevalent and accepted method for determining the amount of reservoir compaction. Surface deformations above compacting reservoirs can be efficiently modeled using influence functions. In this paper used Knothe and Geertsma influence functions in a simple approach for subsidence modeling of the South Pars gas field. In this approach we used circular network, called as influence network, for determining the whole reservoir compaction effect on the field surface. Also semi-analytical modeling of subsidence with use of the AEsubs software is presented for comparing the results of modeling using the influence functions.Simulation, design, and fabrication of a side diode pumped Nd:YAG solid state laser with 1.08 beam quality factor
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3631.html
In this paper, designing and fabrication of a diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with a new design of laser head and high beam quality factor is reported. Appropriate diode lasers are prepared. Driver circuit, which works at quasi continuous wave (QCW) mode, and has tunable pulse repetition rate and input current, is fabricated. Heat distribution in the active material and output beam profile is simulated by LASCAD software. Output pulses with 14 mJ energy, 200 microseconds time duration, and 1 Hz pulse repetition rate are achieved. High beam quality factor with M2≤1.08 is obtained.Approximation by q-analogue of Jakimovski-Leviatan operators involving q-Appell polynomials
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3632.html
In the present paper, we introduce q-analogue of the Jakimovski-Leviatan operators with the help of q-Appell polynomials. We establish some moments and auxiliary results by using q-derivatives and then prove a basic convergence theorem. Also, the Voronovskaja-type asymptotic formula and some direct results for the above operators are discussed. Moreover, the rate of convergence and weighted approximation by these operators in terms of modulus of continuity are studied.General natural metallic structure on tangent bundle
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3633.html
In this paper, we study the natural lifts type as complete and horizontal of a metallic structures on the tangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold and find some interesting results about structures, metric, distribution and the relationship between them. In the end, we introduce general natural lifts of a metallic structure and a semi-Riemannian manifold on the tangent bundle and get the conditions under which the tangent bundle endowed with such a metallic structure and a general natural lifted metric is a Riemannian manifold.Spectroscopic characterization on the interaction between synthesized platinum(II) based drug and human serum albumin
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3634.html
The interaction of an organoplatinum(II) complex [Pt(pr-dtc)(bpy)]NO3 (where pr-dtc = propyldithiocarbamate and bpy = 2,2ˊ-bipyridine), as anticancer agent with human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution at pH 7.4 has been studied by fluorescence, UV−Vis absorption spectra and CD spectroscopy. The quenching constants and binding parameters were determined by fluorescence quenching method. The obtained results revealed that there is a strong binding interaction between Pt(II) complex and HSA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) confirmed that the binding reaction is mainly entropy-driven, and hydrophobic forces played a major role in the reaction. The binding distance (r) between the Pt(II) complex (acceptor) and HSA (donor) was obtained based on Försters theory of non-radiation energy transfer. Finally, the results of CD and UV–Vis spectroscopy showed that the binding of this complex to HSA induced conformational changes in protein. We hope that such spectroscopic studies between this complex and HSA give us key insights into the transportation, distribution and toxicity of newly design antitumor Pt(II) complexes in human blood.Assessing of removal efficiency of Indigo carmine from wastewater using MWCNTs
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3635.html
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were oxidized for removal of indigo carmine (IC) from aqueous solution through batch experiment. The effects of contact time, temperature, pH and dosage of adsorbent on the removal of indigo carmine were investigated. The optimal pH for maximum dye adsorption was found to be 5.0. The adsorption kinetic of IC dye onto oxidized MWCNTs fitted the pseudo-second-order model and the equilibrium experimental results showed good correlation with Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was obtained as 71.42 mg g-1.Hydrodynamic Study of an Ebullated-bed Reactor in the H-Oil Process
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3636.html
The effectiveness and performance of industrial hydro-processing ebullated bed reactors are highly dependent on the bed hydrodynamics and operating conditions. Hydrodynamics of ebullated bed reactors was studied in a cold model experimental setup. The results of a dynamic similarity test showed that the experimental data could be applied in the study of a large scale unit (Refinery of Lukoil, Burgas, Bulgaria) within a reasonable accuracy. Air and magnesium sulfate 20 wt.% (MgSO4 + H2O) solution and solid catalyst particles were used as the gas, liquid and solid phases respectively. For design of experiments in the lab-scale cold-flow column, factorial method was introduced to study the influence of operating variables on the individual holdups and bubble characteristics. Pressure gradient method was used to estimate the individual holdups and bed porosity along the column, while photographic method was utilized to obtain images of the moving gas bubble. The images were analyzed using Ai Adobe illustrator CC (64 Bit) software to determine the bubbles geometric characteristics. Large gas bubbles were broken to smaller ones due to the increased turbulent intensity and shear forces at higher liquid velocities, reducing mass transfer resistances. Empirical correlations were developed for prediction of phase holdups and bed porosity with high accuracy. The results showed that liquid internal reflux ratio, which characterized the ebullated bed reactors has a predominant effect on the individual holdups and bubble size. A good agreement was observed between the results and available data in the literature.Vibrational Dynamics and Heat Capacity of Syndiotactic Poly (vinyl alcohol)
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3637.html
Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a medically active polymer. A systematic study of normal modes of vibration and their dispersions in syndiotactic PVA (sPVA) has been reported by using Urey-Bradley force field (UBFF) and Wilson’s GF matrix method as modified by Higgs. It provides detailed interpretation of IR and Raman spectra. Characteristic feature of dispersion curves such as regions of high density–of–states, repulsion and character mixing of dispersion modes are discussed. Predictive values of heat capacity as a function of temperature between 0-500 K have been evaluated.Synthesis, Magneto-structural Properties and Colloidal Stability Studies of Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 Nanoparticles Coated with Pluronic P123 Block Copolymer for Potential Biomedical Applications
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3638.html
Spinel Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 (NZFO) magnetic nanoparticles was prepared by the low temperature auto-combustion method using a glycine fuel rich composition without any further heat treatment at high temperature. Subsequently, the synthesized MNPs were coated with Pluronic P123 (PP123) after its surface was functionalized with oleic acid (OA). The effect of the coatings on the morphology, structural and magnetic properties of NZFO nanoparticles were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The colloidal behaviour of coated MNPs in physiological saline medium like water or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was also studied by zeta potential measurements. XRD results showed the formation of cubic spinel crystalline phase with and without OA-PP123 coatings. Also, after OA-PP123 coating, the crystallite size (from Scherrer formula) decreases from 55 to 53 nm. However, an enlargement in the particle size and a reduction in agglomeration were observed from FE-SEM results when the nanoparticles were coated with OA-PP123. VSM measurements showed ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature before and after coating. The colloidal stability study of the coated sample revealed a considerable high zeta potential value at physiological pH (7.4) highlighting its potential biomedical applications.The usual and discrete norms of some polynomials with coefficients on the unit circle
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3639.html
The relation between the usual and a discrete norms of polynomialswas first introduced by Zygmund. In this paper, we present somebehaviors of both norms on different subclasses of the polynomialswith coefficients on the unit circle.ADJACENCY AND SHIFT-TRANSITIVITY IN GRAPH PRODUCTS
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3640.html
Let $Gamma$ be a finite simple graph with automorphism group $Aut(Gamma).$An automorphism $sigma$ of $Gamma$ is said to be an adjacency automorphism, if for every vertex$xin V(Gamma)$, either $sigma x=x$ or $sigma x$ is adjacent to$x$ in $Gamma$. A shift is an adjacency automorphism fixing no vertices. The graph$Gamma$ is (shift) adjacency-transitive if for every pair of vertices $x, x'in V(Gamma)$,there exists a sequence of (shift) adjacency automorphisms $sigma_{1},sigma_{2},...sigma_{k}inAut(Gamma)$such that $sigma_{1}sigma_{2}...sigma_{k}x=x'$. If, in addition, for every pair ofadjacent vertices $x, x'in V(Gamma)$ there exists an (shift) adjacency automorphism say$sigmain Aut(Gamma)$ sending $x$ to $x'$, then $Gamma$ is strongly (shift) adjacency-transitive.If for every pair of adjacent vertices $x, x'in V(Gamma)$ there exists exactly one shift $sigmainAut(Gamma)$sending $x$ to $x'$, then $Gamma$ is uniquely shift-transitive. In this paper, we investigate these concepts insome standard graph products.Studies of pollen charactristics in plants of fruitless of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. (Bignoniaceae) in Golparaki region of Jiroft city, Iran
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3641.html
Tecomella undulate, one monospecific genus, is valued for beautiful flowers, resistance against extreme temperature and drought, stabilizing shifting sand dunes, medicinal properties and wood production. In spite of massive flowering, the species is fruitlessness and consequently seedlessness. The present study examines the causes of its sterility indicating on pollen characteristics. Flowers were hand pollinated by pollen of either self or outcross pollen. Some flowers were tagged as open pollination treatment. Pollen structure, in situ and in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth were analyzed. Mature pollen grains are heteromorphic, mostly heterogeneous sized as small and large. Both pollen grains types are prolate and tricolpate with rugulate- reticulate sculpture. Flowers are protandrous and long stylous; a nectariferous tissue secreting abundant nectar exists in the ovary base. No effective pollinator visited flowers during the observation period. No pollen germination and pollen tube growth were observed in self- and cross- pollinated styles and under in vitro conditions. It seems that pollen heterogeneity, lack of pollinators and pollen limitation, the failure of autogamy due to protoandry or long styly as well as self incompatibility are resulted in pollen sterility and seedlessnees. In addition, probably polyploidy and cytomixis affect infertility too that will need to be studied in detail in the future.An Approach to alleviate the impact of drought stress with selenium amendment
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3642.html
ABSTRACT
Selenium (Se), an essential microelement for humans and animals, has recently gained in importance in the plant systems due to its effects on antioxidative defense system. Several studies demonstrated that low concentrations of Se protect plants against various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. We conducted a pot experiment for two months, using Sorghum (Sorghum vulgarea L.), to investigate the protective role of a low dose of Se (20 mg Se L−1) against a drought stress. Specifically, we submitted treated and non-treated plants to three different condition of water availability: control condition (100% field capacity), low drought condition (70% field capacity), and high drought condition (35% field capacity) and we measured growth and several physiological traits of these plants. We found that Se treatment stimulates growth and significantly increases the relative water content (RWC) and the chlorophyll content. These findings suggest that Se could alleviate drought stress by promoting growth and regulating water status of sorghum.The water Quality of the Shahid Rajaee Reservoir (Mazandaran-Iran): Based on Phytoplankton Community
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3660.html
Shahid Rajaee Reservoir (SRR) is one of the main reservoirs is located in Mazandaran province. There is no published data of algal study and water quality deduction based on biotic parameter in this area. Therefore, SRR was chosen to study the water quality and water pollution based on the phytoplankton community. Samples were collected at four stations during the six months sampling occasions (June, July, August, September, November 2012 and February 2013). Results showed that the water quality of selected sampling stations based on the phytoplankton communities (Shannon-Weiner diversity index H', 0.92-1.37) were classified as slightly polluted to polluted. The H' values reflected the excellent quality in June (2.80) and February (2.77), whereas the lowest quality were obtained in August (0.58). Based on the saprobic index values, the reservoir was categorized as ß –mesosaprobic class (moderate organic loading) except in August which was under α-mesosaprobic to ß–mesosaprobic (critical organic loading) classification. The water quality condition derived from the trophic classification (based on chlorophyll-a concentration) varied from good to poor class at different sampling months and stations. Based on the results obtained, the risk of pollution and water quality degradation was more noticeable at station 2 and during July and August 2012. In order to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication and algal bloom, it is necessary to conduct the regular monitoring and human activities surrounding the SRR and the river tributaries should be monitored.Exact solutions of some partial differential equations using the Modified Differential Transform Method
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3673.html
In this paper, we presented modification of the differential transform method by using Laplace Transform and Padé approximation to obtain closed form solutions of linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. Some illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the activeness of the proposed technique. The obtained results ensure that this modified method is capable of solving a large number of linear and nonlinear PDEs that have wide application in science and engineering. It solves the drawbacks in the standard differential transform method.Ionic liquid - assisted hydrothermal synthesis of silver vanadate nanorods.
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3674.html
Silver vanadate nanorods have been synthesized via ionic liquid- assisted hydrothermal method at 130 C for 3 days using imidazolium-based functionalized ionic liquid. The obtained product when characterized by XRD shows it to be silver vanadate. The FTIR shows band at 446 cm-1 indicating V- O stretching vibration. A sharp peak at 145 cm-1 indicates the presence of layered structure and a peak at 1000 cm-1 indicate V=O stretching vibration as per Raman spectroscopy. The UV- Vis spectrum exhibits maximum absorbance at 425 nm reveal the presence of silver vanadate. The SEM revealed grass blade- like nanorods. The width of the nanorods is in the range of 40 nm as observed by TEM.Global analysis of the Babesiosis disease in bovine and tick populations model and numerical simulation with multistage modied sinc method
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3676.html
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) aect 80 of the world's cattle population, hampering livestockproduction throughout the world. In this article we will consider the Babesiosis disease inbovine and tick populations model. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of themodel. We present a dynamic behavior of this model using an ecient computational algo-rithm, namely the multistage modied sinc method(MMSM). The MMSM is used here as analgorithm for approximating the solutions of proposed system in a sequence of time intervals.In order to show the eciency of the method, the obtained numerical results are comparedwith the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RKM). It is shown that the MMSM has the ad-vantage of giving an analytical form of the solution within each time interval which is notpossible in purely numerical techniques like RKM.Combined Shearlet Shrinkage and Total Variation Minimization for Image Denoising
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3677.html
In this paper, a TV-based shearlet shrinkage is proposed for discontinuity-preserving denoisingusing a combination of shearlet with a total variation scheme. For TV denoising numerical procedure, we use two approaches. In the first approach, we apply semi-implicit method for total variation. In order to solve Euler-Lagrange equation associated with total variation, weuse Additive Operator Splitting (AOS) scheme. This approach has good effect on suppressingthe pseudo-Gibbs and shearlet-like artifacts and is very efficient for reducing iterations. In the second approach, we use Split Bregman iteration method. This techniques converges very quickly and in combine by shearlet shrinkage produce good results.Salvia officinalis induces apoptosis in mammary carcinoma cells through alteration of Bax to Bcl-2 ratio
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3683.html
Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is one of the herbal plants frequently used in traditional medicine. Anti carcinogenic property of sage extract and the fact that it does not show toxic effect on normal cells, make this extract a proper candidate for cancer therapy. In order to assess the molecular mechanism underlying sage anticancer properties, the effect of sage hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (4T1). Cultured cells were treated with different concentrations (0-1000 μg/ml) of Salvia officinalis extract for 24 hours. Decrease in cell viability and increase in chromatin condensation were observed in a dose dependent manner following treatment with sage extract. Most cultured cells were in the early stages of apoptosis in 100μg/ml and in the late stages of apoptosis in 500 μg/ml of the extract. While Bax expression was increased significantly at 500 μg/ml of sage extract, no significant change was observed in the levels of Bcl2 expression in different concentrations of the extract compared to non-treated control. Therefore, Salvia officinalis hydro alcoholic extract shows cytotoxic and proapoptotic properties on mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Moreover, it seems that the induction of apoptosis in those cells is through increased in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 as an apoptotic index.Poly (vinylpyrrolidone)-Grafted Silica as Polymeric Cosolvent Catalyst for Chemoselective Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones to Alcohols
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3700.html
Poly (vinylpyrrolidone)-grafted silica as a polymeric cosolvent catalyst was prepared. This heterogeneous catalyst was used for the chemoselective conversion of various aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols with sodium borohydride in high yields and short reaction times. This catalytic system reduces α, β-unsaturated aldehydes to produce allyl alcohols as an important synthetic precursors. The catalyst can be reused several times without any considerable decrease in its activity.Application of a Meshfree Method Based on a Compactly Supported Radial Basis Function for Solving Unsteady Isothermal Gas Through a Micro-Nano Porous Medium
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3706.html
In this paper, we have applied the Meshless method, based on compactly supported radial basis function collocation in order to obtain the numerical solution of an unsteady gas equation. The unsteady gas equation is a second order non-linear, two-point boundary value, ordinary differential equation on the semi-infinite domain, with a boundary condition in the infinite. The compactly supported radial basis function collocation method reduces the solution of the equation to the solution of a system of algebraic equation. Also, we compare the results of this work with some results. It is found that our results agree well with those by the numerical method, which verifies the validity of the present work.A note on topological and strict transitivity
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3724.html
AbstractLet X be a normed linear space and L(X) be the algebra of continuous linear operators on X. We give a necessary condition for topological transitivity of subsets of L(X) which gives a necessary condition for hypercyclicity and supercyclicity of a single operator on X. Also, We prove the strict transitivity of some particular families of operators on locally convex spaces and Hilbert spaces.Key words and phrases: hypercyclic, supercyclic, topologically transitive, strictly transitiveAntimicrobial Effect on Microbial Flora Growth of PVDF/PMMA blends
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3725.html
Polymers have been extensively employed as stone preservatives for monuments since thirty years, has been tested on specimens appropriately prepared and submitted to ageing simulating reliable outdoor environment. Growth of microorganisms on different materials may cause aesthetic and structural damage. The structure of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) exhibits an excellent chemical resistance, an easy processing and an excellent UV stability; but disadvantages such as inability to produce a glossy finish and the high cost, make it indispensable to introduce a secondary polymer. The poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has a low price compared to PVDF but it deteriorates easily by UV radiations exposure; this character limits its use as protecting agent for stones.The results showed a protecting effect which can also be an inhibiting effect if complete dissolution of the blended polymers in nutritive medium is reached.Deign of Control Chart for Processes with Multiple Independent Manufacturing Lines
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3744.html
It is common in industry to manufacture the product using the multiple lines to meet the customer demand. In this manuscript, the designing of control chart for processes with multiple independent lines is presented. The control chart coefficients are determined for various level of the specified average run length. The average run lengths for various shifts are given for different level of sample size and multiple lines. The efficiency of the proposed control chart is discussed with the existing control chart based on a single line. The tables are presented for industrial engineers and illustrated with the help of simulated data and industrial examples.Neutronic analysis of (ThO2-EnrichedUO2) replacement with natUO2 fuel in a typical heavy water research reactor
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3753.html
Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that thorium-based fuel could potentially be a proper alternative in nuclear fuel cycle technology. Hence, the neutronic performance of an enriched uranium/thorium oxide fuel loading in a typical heavy water research reactor is computationally evaluated in the present study. The obtained data shows that the thorium-based fuel has a less negative temperature coefficient in comparison with the natUO2 fuel loading. Meantime, the thorium-based fuel loading in the typical core configuration did not drastically reduce the β parameter. Rather higher conversion factor and less transuranic production of the thorium-based fuel cycle makes it favorable either to achieve higher cycle length or less dangerous and costly waste disposal.Necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of nonsmooth semi-infinite programming
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3754.html
Throughout this paper, we consider a nonsmooth semi-infinite problem. We study some Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type necessary conditions under Guignard, Abadie and Cottle constraint qualifications. We also proved sufficient conditions under generalized convexity.Aqueous extract of Heracleum persicum Desf. enhances immune response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3761.html
Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiaceae), a medicinal plant native to Iran, has been known to be a potent immunomodulatory agent in mice. In the present study, its immunomodulatory properties in common carp, ciprinus carpio was investigated. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with 6, 60 or 600 mg/kg body weight, of the water soluble fraction. H. persicumat medium and high dose (60 and 600 mg/kg BW, respectively) significantly (pdabcoammonium halochromates, C6H14N2 ＋ Cr2F2O6 －(DAXC, X＝F, Cl) , reagents for efficient and mild oxidation of organic substrates
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3766.html
New orange solid dabcoammonium halochromates, C6H14 N2＋Cr2X2O6－,DAXC (X＝F, Cl) are easily synthesized by the reaction of dabco (1,4-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane) with CrO3 in a 1∶2 molar ratio in the presence of HF and HCl. Dabcoammonium halochromates (VI) are versatile reagents for the effective and selective oxidation of organic substrates to carbonyl derivatives .Potential of Lead and Cadmium Accumulation in Washingtonia filifera
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3768.html
In present study one year old Washingtonia filifera was used to determine the comparative study of uptake of the toxic heavy metals Cd and Pb. Seedlings were evaluated under 0, 50, 250 and 500 mg dm-3 concentrations of both heavy metals for 45 days. Some growth parameters such as shoots and roots length, collar diameter, fresh and dry weights and also uptake of heavy metals were determined in response to Cd and Pb stress. Results showed that Cd and Pb treatments decreased growth parameters and Cd was found to be more detrimental than Pb treatments. The total fresh and dry weights and plant height were lower by 50%, 56%, 55% and 17%, 18%, 30% in Cd and Pb treatments, respectively, compared with the control. The amounts of accumulated Pb and particularly Cd were much higher in the roots than in aboveground parts of all treatments. W. filifera accumulated large amounts of the toxic heavy metals Cd (1166–5800 mg kg-1) and Pb (826–2433 mg kg-1) in roots and about 4046 mg kg-1 of Cd and 1873 mg kg-1 of Pb were determined in aboveground parts. Based on calculated Bio-Concentration Factor and Translocation Factor values, W. filifera has the potential for phytostabilization programs. Also it was found to be the candidate for phytoremediation programs of polluted soils with Cd better than Pb.Fe3O4@SiO2/Schiff base complex of Co(II) as an efficient Lewis acid nanocatalyst for acetylation of alcohols and phenols under solvent-free conditions
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3769.html
Fe3O4@SiO2/Schiff base complex of Co (II) nanocatalyst was used as a novel, efficient catalyst for acetylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride in high yields under solvent-free conditions. Various primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols were acetylated under solvent-free conditions in the presence of catalytic amount of the nanocatalyst at room temperature. Also, Fe3O4@SiO2/Schiff base/Co (II) can catalyze the acetylation of various alcohols by the reaction of alcohols with ethyl acetate under reflux conditions. The nanocatalyst can be simply recovered by a magnetic field and reused over 5 times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity.Wave propagation in piezoelectric circular curved rods
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3770.html
Dispersion equations of wave propagation in piezoelectric circular curved rods in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system are established in this paper, in which the displacements and electrical potential fields are described by using Bessel functions. Characteristics of dispersion relations, distributions of displacements and electrical potential over the cross section are calculated. In the numerical examples, effects of various parameters on wave dispersions, distributions of displacement and electric potential of the first several modes over the cross section are investigated, in which influence of the changing of curvature radius of circular rods on distributions of displacement and electrical potential is compared, and also, influence of whether considering the piezoelectric parameters in curved rods on dispersion is discussed.Development of kinetic model for xanthan production in a lab scale batch fermentor
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3772.html
The present study was undertaken to investigate a kinetic model for cell growth evaluation and biopolymer production by Xanthomonas campestris in a lab scale batch fermentor.The optimum conditions selected for biopolymer production were 30 °C for media temperature, 500 rpm for agitation rate, 65 g/l for sugarcane concentration and 1.5vvm for air flow rate . A detailed, unstructured, mathematical kinetic model is presented here for batch production of Xanthan biopolymer from X.campestris. Set of ordinary differential equations were developed as Logistic model for X.campestris growth and Logistic incorporated Leudeking Piret model for Xanthan production. These models would offer more insights of Xanthan optimization with better productivities. The value of specific growth rate μ_max of logistic model was 0.026 h-1. The values of α and β is 8.480, and 0.077 respectively which shows that the xanthan production is growth associated since the value of the growth associated parameter α is much more than the value of nongrowth associated parameter β in Luedeking Piret model.Biodegradation of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by axenic bacterial species belonging to the genera Lysinibacillus and Paenibacillus.
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3783.html
The quest for competent degraders of recalcitrant polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for use in sustainable bioremediation technology has justified the execution of this work. In this study, three bacterial strains (FB-1, FB-2 and FB-3) were isolated from former industrial site in Bloomington, Indiana. The catabolic versatility of these obtained strains were evaluated on some selected PAH- naphthalene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Using the 16S r RNA sequencing analyses, our strains belonged to the family Firmicutes wereby, strain FB-1 was identified as Lysinibacillus sp. FB-1, strain FB-2 as Bacterium FB-2 and strain FB-3 as Lysinibacillus fusiformis FB-3. The biodegradation of the selected PAHs was determined using gas chromatography and the calculated percentage utilization of the selected PAHs varied between 97 to 4%. We further determined the mean biodegradation rates for fluoranthene when supplemented with molasses. The mean biodegradation rates were between (mgL-1) 0.214± 0.006 -0.318 ± 0.002, while MS-fluoranthene only ranged between (mgL-1) 0.210 ± 0.056 - 0.437± 0.176. However, with ANOVA at 5% (P< 0.05) there seemed to be no significant difference in the mean biodegradation rates between both media. These findings may have practical and ecological prospects in designing and improving bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated sites..A NEW HYBRID METHOD FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR FREDHOLM INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FRACTIONAL ORDER
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3787.html
Abstract. A numerical method for solving nonlinear Fredholmintegro-dierential equations of fractional order is proposed. Themethod is based on a Hybrid function approximation. The proper-ties of Hybrid of Block-Pulse functions and orthonormal Bernsteinpolynomials are presented and are utilized to reduce the computa-tion of converting nonlinear Fredholm integro-dierential of frac-tional order equations to a system of algebraic equations. some nu-merical examples are presented to illustrate the eectiveness andsimplicity of the method.The influence of administration of different dose of arginine and lysine coupled with cadmium in the lactating ewes on the cadmium concentration in milk
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3843.html
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy element. Increases in Cd level might cause many disorder, so it is important to controlling amount of this heavy metal in both animals and humans. In mammary gland the mechanism of Cd uptake is not quite clear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Cd can pass through the mammary epithelial cell into milk by co-transport system with amino acid in the lactating ewes. This experimental research included 54 lactating ewes which collected from Department of State Organization Agriculture of Tehran province, were allocated into 9 groups as follow: groups which received inorganic form as cadmium chloride (1, 2 and 4 mg kg-1 of B.W.), and groups which received organic Cd with different dose of arginine or lysine (1, 2 and 4 mg kg-1 of B.W.) in chelate form. Milk sample were taken 30 min before and 6 hours after intravenous injection of Cd preparations. Cd concentration in milk was measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. There are no significant difference between groups in milk’s Cd concentration before administration of inorganic or organic Cd. Data analysis showed that administration of inorganic Cd caused a significant increase of Cd concentration in the milk (pDetermination of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations in Iranian Caspian Sea caviar of Acipenser persicus using anodic stripping voltammetry
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In this study anodic stripping voltammetry was used to assess the contents of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in caviar of Acipenser persicus caught from Southern Caspian Sea sampling site. The ranged (μg g−1) of metals in caviar samples were: 0.025 to 0.069 for Cd, 1.08 to 1.76 for Cu, 0.009 to 0.01 for Mn and 12.9 to 21.1 for Zn, respectively. These levels are significantly lower than the adverse levels for human consumption based on FAO/WHO permissible limits. Therefore, caviar's contribution to the total body burden of these heavy metals can be considered as negligibly small, especially given that caviar is a luxury product. The result of the one-way analysis of variance suggested significant variations (pEXPECTED NUMBER OF REAL ZEROS OF GAUSSIAN Self-Reciprocal RANDOM ALGEBRAIC POLYNOMIALS
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3846.html
We consider a random algebraic polynomial where it's thecoefficients form a sequence of centered Gaussian random variables.Moreover, we assume that the increments are independent normally dis-tributed variables with mean zero. The coefficients can be considered asn consecutive observations of a Brownian motion. Assuming the sym-metric property of coefficients, we investigate some new and considerableresults about the distribution of zeros. We also prove that the expected number of real zeros of self algebraic polynomial is asymptotically of order log n.The crystal structure of the Ba-hexacelsian phases doped with Ca2+ and Pb2+
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3867.html
The ion-exchange procedure is used for doping the Ba-hexacelsian structure with Ca2+ and Pb2+ cations. The hexacelsian doped with Ca2+ has a composition of Ba0.64Ca0.36Al2Si2O8 and hexacelsian doped with Pb2+ has a composition Ba0.9Pb0.1Al2Si2O8. The crystal structure of both doped hexacelsians was refined by Rietveld refinement procedure. The crystal structure of Ca -hexacelsian is refined in the space group P c1 and results indicate ordering distribution of Si and Al (unit cell parameters is a=5.2995, c=15.594 Å and agreement factors: Rexp= 15.3 Rp=19.9, Rwp=19.0, RB=15.0 RF=4.08). Structural model for Pb-hexacelsian samples is described in the space group P63/mcm with disorder distribution Si/Al (unit cell parameter is a=5.2973, c=15.591 Å and agreement factors Rexp=21.5 Rp=21.5, Rwp=19.0, RB=5.74 RF=4.08). The results of Rietveld refinements indicate that Ca2+ and Pb2+ cations are incorporated into hexacelsiane structure in different position.Optimization of the key medium components and culture conditions for efficient cultivation of Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA ATCC 51573 using response surface methodology
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3868.html
Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising method for hydrogen production by microorganisms. The culture conditions were optimized for Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA ATCC 51573 using response surface methodology involving central composite design (CCD). Effects of sodium bicarbonate, sodium acetate, sodium fumarate, incubation temperature and initial pH value of culture on cell growth of G.sulfurreducens PCA ATCC 51573 were studied. Experimental data obtained from CCD was utilized to generate a second-order polynomial regression model and to evaluate the effect of the variables studied on the optical density (OD) as the main response of bacterial growth of the strain PCA ATCC 51573. The statistical analysis showed sodium bicarbonate, sodium acetate and sodium fumarate had significant effect on OD value (PEquilibrium and kinetic studies on the removal of Acid Red-14 from aqueous solutions using PSMA
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3930.html
The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. In this study, not hydrolyzed poly (styrene- alternative- maleic anhydride) (PSMA) polymer have been used as new synthetic adsorbent to removal of acid red-14 dye from aqueous solutions (industrial wastes). Batch sorption studies have been carried out to determine the effect of agitation time, pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of the sorbate and temperature. The effect of electrolyte interference such as; 〖Na〗^+, 〖Cl〗^-, etc., on dyes removal efficiency were investigated. The acid red 14 dye showed maximal amount of sorption capacity as 5.12 mg/g at pH= 6.1 and 25 °C. Equilibrium data were fitted with Langmuir and Fleundlich Freundlich isotherms to find the best fit and it was found that the adsorption of this dye on adsorbents particles are monolayer and correspond to the Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetics were investigated using pseudo first order and pseudo second order rate equations and kinetic data followed the pseudo second order rate equation for sorption of these this dye on PSMA adsorbent. The application of adsorbents performance was tested with real samples contain limit exceeded amount of foresaid dyes which had been taken from a Dyeing Factory. This study provides good background to development of dyes removal in waste waters by polymeric sorbent.Computation of neutron dose buildup factors for ordinary concrete in the fast range of energy: A comparative study
https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3950.html
In this work we calculated neutron dose buildup factor at energy interval 80-120 MeV for the calcareous type of ordinary concrete (i.e., one made of sand and aggregate composed basically of limestone) by using the data from the literature and an improved empirical fitting formula for estimating neutron buildup factors. We could estimate the removal macroscopic cross section of neutron (ƩR) in this range of energy (80-120 MeV) at various mass thicknesses (0˂X˂550) for this type of concrete. The results are compared with the Monte Carlo method.