SpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107On generalized statistical convergence in random 2-normed space417423210310.22099/ijsts.2012.2103ENE. SavasDepartment of Mathematics, Istanbul Commerce University, Üsküdar, Istanbul, TurkeyJournal Article20120213In this paper, we shall define and study the concept of -statistical convergence and -statistical Cauchy in<br />random 2-normed space. We also introduce the concept of -statistical completeness which would provide a<br />more general frame work to study the completeness in random 2-normed space. Furthermore, we also prove some new results.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2103_77374981344e5f7b49f7efdd3db2a8c5.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Phragmén-Lindelöf type results for a class of nonlinear damped wave equations425429210410.22099/ijsts.2012.2104ENF. TahamtaniDepartment of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, P.O.Box 71454, Shiraz, IranA. PeyraviDepartment of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, P.O.Box 71454, Shiraz, IranJournal Article20111231This paper deals with the behavior at infinity of solutions to a class of wave equations with nonlinear damping<br />terms defined in a semi-infinite cylinder. The spatial behavior of solutions is studied and an alternative of<br />Phragmén-Lindelöf type theorems is obtained in the results. The main point in the contribution is the use of energy method.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2104_578580cbeb03884f5113af3307d2a0dd.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Solutions of the perturbed Klein-Gordon equations431452210510.22099/ijsts.2012.2105ENA. BiswasDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901-2277, USAG. EbadiDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tabriz Tabriz, 51666-14766, IranM. FessakDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901-2277, USAA. G. JohnpillaiDepartment of Mathematics, Eastern University, Sri lankaS. JohnsonLake Forest High School, 5407 Killens Pond Road, Felton, DE-19943, USAKrishnan E. V.Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al Khod 123, Muscat, OmanA. YildirimDepartment of Mathematics and Statistics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Oman
64146 Sk. No: 16 Zeytinalani Mah. Urla, Izmir, TurkeyJournal Article20120218This paper studies the perturbed Klein-Gordon equation by the aid of several methods of integrability. There are six forms of nonlinearity that are considered in this paper. The parameter domains are thus identified.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2105_93ea8d6fc87b003138fc1ab793a0060b.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Existence and local attractivity of solutions of a nonlinear quadratic functional integral equation453460210610.22099/ijsts.2012.2106ENA. AghajaniDepartment of Mathematics, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, IranN. SabzaliDepartment of Mathematics, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, IranJournal Article20120220In this paper, using the tools involving measures of noncompactness and Darbo fixed point theorem for<br />condensing operator, we study the existence of solutions for a large class of generalized nonlinear quadratic<br />functional integral equations. Also, we show that solutions of these integral equations are locally attractive.<br />Furthermore, we present an example to show the efficiency and usefulness of our results.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2106_a6856abff1f46431e8182a1abf98bae6.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Conditional expectation of weak random elements461467210710.22099/ijsts.2012.2107ENS. ShisheborDepartment of Statistics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranA. R. SoltaniDepartment of Statistics, Shiraz University (and Kuwait University) Shiraz, P.O. Box 5969 Safat 13060, IranM. SharifitabarSchool of Mathematics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),
P.O. Box: 19395-5746, Tehran, IranZ. SajjadniaDepartment of Statistics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranJournal Article20111226We prove that the limit of a sequence of Pettis integrable bounded scalarly measurable weak random elements, of finite weak norm, with values in the dual of a non-separable Banach space is Pettis integrable. Then we provide basic properties for the Pettis conditional expectation, and prove that it is continuous. Calculus of Pettis conditional expectations in general is very different from the calculus of Bochner conditional expectations due to the lack of strong measurability and separability. In two examples, we derive the Pettis conditional expectations.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2107_c87cfa778504a93d5a67510b8340c1fa.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Fuzzy soft -ring469476210810.22099/ijsts.2012.2108ENS. OnarDepartment of Mathematics, Yıldız Technical University Davutpaşa Kampüsü
E Blok 2021 34220 Esenler, Istanbul, TurkeyA. ErsoyDepartment of Mathematics, Yıldız Technical University Davutpaşa Kampüsü, E Blok 2021 34220 Esenler, Istanbul, TurkeyU. TekirDepartment of Mathematics, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul, TurkeyJournal Article20120213The concept of fuzzy soft Γ-ring is introduced; and some properties of fuzzy soft Γ-rings are given. Then the definitions of fuzzy soft Γ-ideals are proposed and some of their theories are considered.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2108_19a696d178cbbddb379b9e0f13c14ae9.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Bioethanol production from white onion by yeast in repeated batch477480210910.22099/ijsts.2012.2109ENM. VazirzadehDepartment of Biology, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranH. R. Karbalaei-HeidariDepartment of Biology, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranM. MohsenzadehDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranJournal Article20120116Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bioethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from an endemic Iranian white onion (Allium cepa L., Dorche cultivar) by the yeast “Saccharomyces cerevisiae” in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was77.3 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bioethanol percentage was 8 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 40 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice and 93 %, respectively.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2109_09af85c52be2dcaa8baf0e9b1526f983.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Surface charge properties of zirconium dioxide481486211010.22099/ijsts.2012.2110ENS. MuhammadDepartment of Chemistry Islamia College Peshawar (Chartered University) 25120, PakistanS. T. HussainDepartment of Chemistry Kohat University of Science & Technology Kohat, 2600, PakistanM. WaseemDepartment of Chemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra, 21300, PakistanA. NaeemNational Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, 25120, PakistanJ. HussainDepartment of Chemistry Kohat University of Science & Technology Kohat, 2600, PakistanM. Tariq JanDepartment of Chemistry Islamia College Peshawar (Chartered University) 25120, PakistanJournal Article20120226Zirconium dioxide, commonly known as zirconia, is an interesting material and is receiving growing attention due to its excellent mechanical properties. The solid was characterized for surface area measurements, scanningelectron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray diffractometry (EDX) and potentiometric titrations. Surface titrations were carried out at the temperature range 303 to 323K in the presence of different concentrations (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001mol/dm3) of NaNO3 as a background electrolyte. Surface charge density and point of zero charge (PZC) of ZrO2 were determined from the titration data. Salt addition method was also applied to measure the PZC of the solid. The surface charge densities of ZrO2 were observed to increase with increase in temperature but decrease while increasing the concentration of electrolyte. Further, the PZC was found to decrease with the rise in temperature. However, it was found to increase with increase in concentration of the background electrolyte. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH and ΔS were also determined from the slope and intercept of the linear plot of (pHpzc - ½ pKw) versus reciprocal temperature (1/T). The values of both the ΔH and ΔS were found to be negative, while that of ΔG were positive. From these thermodynamic parameters, it was suggested that the protonation / de-protonation process of ZrO2 is non-spontaneous.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2110_cef70191619e614cbad9afe7331c1257.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Scale structure of a cyprinid fish, Garra Rossica (Nikol’skii, 1900) using scanning electron microscope (SEM)487492211110.22099/ijsts.2012.2111ENH.R. EsmaeiliDepartment of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71454, I. R. of IranA. GholamifardDepartment of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71454, I. R. of IranN. ZareiDepartment of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71454, I. R. of IranA. ArshadiFisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zabol, Zabol, I. R. of IranJournal Article20120121The normal and lateral line cycloid scales of the native species Garra rossica (Nikol’skii, 1900), one of the most common and poorly known cyprinid fish in south-eastern Iran have been subjected to the scanning electron microscopy technique in order to study their detailed structure. Normal scale below the dorsal fin showed a clearcut demonstration between the anterior and posterior region with the focus lying towards the anterior region that is covered by reticulate or honeycomb form structures with few mucous pores. There is a wedge shaped circuli only in the anterior and lateral fields which are partitioned by deep and narrow grooves called radii and run radially towards the focus. On the dorsal side, the anterior circuli bear numerous pointed lepidonts. In the posterior section, the scale has several rows of pigmented granules (tubercles) with different shapes from round to oval, semi oval and even oblong structure. The lateral line scale has a canal which characteristically lies along the anteriorposterior axis, with a wider anterior opening than the posterior opening which is hidden by an eyelike extension cantilevered over it. Although the scale of G. rossica shows the general structure of a cycloid cyprinid scale, the shape and size of lepidonts on the circuli crest, shape and size of tubercles on the posterior region and the pattern of reticulate or honeycomb that form structures in the focus region may provide more reliable taxonomic tools. The present analysis of scale morphology in G. rossica may be used in combination with other morphological and molecular data in a synergic approach to the phylogenetic and systematic study of the genus.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2111_acca3b67c42780dc7cefd63c7470f69a.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107The importance of cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral cortical development493499211210.22099/ijsts.2012.2112ENF. MashayekhiDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, IranJournal Article20111214In this review the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in mammalian cerebral cortex development has been highlighted. Many studies have focused on the potential role of the CSF in the developmental process. In particular, the cerebral cortex develops from the germinal epithelium adjacent to the CSF. CSF contains proteins, growth factors and other neurotrophic factors which are important for neural cell survival and proliferation. The concentration of protein present in CSF during development is much higher than in adult. Draining CSF from the ventricles of the brain during development increases the number of neural cell deaths and decreases neural cell proliferation and thus thinning of the cerebral cortex. It has been shown that infusion of anti-nerve growth factor antibody into the CSF leads to decreased cell production in the cerebral cortical germinal epithelium. It has also been shown that CSF nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration change during chick embryonic development. Recent evidence shows that CSF regulates relevant aspects of neuroepithelial behavior such as proliferation, survival and migration by means of growth factors, cytokines and morphogenes. According to the data presented here, it is concluded that CSF may be regarded as an important environmental influence in cerebral cortical development.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2112_7c75a84b96e7cbe37111cdf2362cecb0.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Controls on air pollution over a semi-enclosed basin, Tehran: A synoptic climatological approach501510211310.22099/ijsts.2012.2113ENA. R. SaadatabadiAtmospheric Science & Meteorological Research Center, Tehran, IranL. MohammadianForecasting Department, Meteorological Organization, Tehran, IranA. VazifehForecasting Department, Meteorological Organization, Tehran, IranJournal Article20100515In this study, a new array of meteorological elements and a synoptic climatologic classification to produce a<br />baseline climate and to derive meteorological factors that are effective on air pollution in Tehran, which is located in a semi-enclosed basin was developed. The data set includes daily sea-level pressure and 500mb geopotential height fields from NCEP-NCAR and Tehran upper air sounding data at 00:00UTC for six months (July-December) of every year in the period 2001-2006. The classification is done through the principal component analysis (PCA) of data from the upper-air station. The results show that three meteorological factors are effective on variations of the Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentrations in the complicated terrain of Tehran basin. Thickness variations of different pressure layers (especially 850mb-700mb), Total totals index (TT) and surface wind speed are the most important dependent variables of these factors. Examination of the Carbon Monoxide (CO) pollution levels in Tehran, where emission sources are high shows that the synoptic classification identifies the patterns that are conducive to high pollution and those that are conducive to low pollutants build up in the basin. The synoptic climatology of events associated with five categories of CO concentrations show the role of synoptic forcings on decreasing CO concentrations. On the other hand, the role of high and thermal low pressure patterns in producing sever polluted episodes in the basin is also shown. These events occurred exclusively under special synoptic situations with high pressure developing on the airflow entrance of the basin and a thermal low pressure on the leeward side of the mountainous region. The coupled pressure system inducing horizontal pressure gradient produces a low level southerly cross wind toward the mountain barrierhttps://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2113_c96f16e6323233e2777082ecba999227.pdfSpringerIranian Journal of Science2731-809536420121107Electronic Properties of Titanium using density functional theory511515211410.22099/ijsts.2012.2114ENM. JafariPhysics Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O.Box:16315-1618, Tehran, IranH. JamnezhadPhysics Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O.Box:16315-1618, Tehran, IranL. NazarzadehPhysics Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O.Box:16315-1618, Tehran, IranJournal Article20110926In the present work, the electronic properties of titanium were studied in three phases of α, β and ω using the Density Function Theory (DFT). The full potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FLAPW+lo) method was applied using the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated total energies showed that omega phase was more stable than the two other phases. The largest electrical conductance was related to the β phase. These results were in good agreement with the findings of the previous works. In addition, these results showed that an increase in volume would lead to a decrease in energy; thus, causing an increase in the electrical conduction.https://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2114_eab864074e0cdaf6c4df22714a23bae3.pdf