DIFFERENTIATION OF CRYSTAL-CONTAINING CELLS DURING ANTHER DEVELOPMENT AND CRYSTAL TYPES IN THE ANTHER OF PETUNIA HYBRID GRANDIFLORA (SOLANACEAE)*

Document Type: Research Note

Author

Department of Biology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, I. R. of Iran

Abstract

Calcium crystals are evident in many parts of anther. There is little literature about differentiation
of crystal-containing cells and crystal formation during anther development. Petunia hybrid grandiflora
Flower buds collected at different developmental stages were fixed and studied. The results revealed that
young anthers are tetrasporangiate and in each of the four corners, the primary parietal layer externally and
primary sporogenous cells internally, arise from periclinal divisions of the archeosporial cells. In the young
anther, septum and connective cells contain calcium crystals as druse. At stomium, there is an arrangement of
a band of 8-14 cells just beneath the epidermis which densely stain and lack visible vacuoles. During the
division of sporogenous cells and the formation of crescent shaped tissue, no crystals are seen in hypodermal
cells. In this stage, druse crystals become larger in connective tissue. While meiosis is occurring, the
hypodermal cells of stomium are elongated, yet crystals are not observable. During pollen development,
hypodermal cells degenerate and sand crystals appear. It seems that these crystals result from druse crystal.

Keywords