SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Subdıvısıons of the spectra for cesaro, rhaly and weighted mean operators on c0 ,c and ℓp175183214010.22099/ijsts.2011.2140ENR. Kh. AmirovDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas, TurkeyN. DurnaDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas, TurkeyM. YildirimDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas, TurkeyJournal Article20100425There are many different ways to subdivide the spectrum of a bounded linear operator; some of them are<br />motivated by applications to physics (in particular, quantum mechanics). In this study, the relationship between<br />the subdivisions of spectrum which are not required to be disjoint and Goldberg's classification are given.<br />Moreover, these subdivisions for some summability methods are studied.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Analytical and numerical solutions of different parabolic heat equations presented in the form of multi-term fractional differential equations185192214110.22099/ijsts.2011.2141ENM. KazemiMathematics Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranG. H. ErjaeeMathematics Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranJournal Article20110219In this article, we study the analytical solutions of different parabolic heat equations with different boundary<br />conditions in the form of multi-term fractional differential equations. Then we compare these analytical solutions with numerical finite difference methods. This comparison demonstrates the accuracy of the analytical and numerical methods presented here.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916On the Goursat problem for a linear partial differential equation193199214210.22099/ijsts.2011.2142ENA. MaherDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516, EgyptYe. A. UtkinaDepartment of Differential Equations, Kazan State University, Kazan, 420008, RussiaJournal Article20110104In this paper, the Goursat problem of a general form for a linear partial differential equation is investigated with the help of the Riemann function method. Some results are given concerning the existence and uniqueness for the solution of the suggested problem.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916New scheme of nuclide and nuclear binding energy from quark-like model201208214310.22099/ijsts.2011.2143ENN. GhahramanyPhysics Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranSh. GharaatiPhysic Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj, IranM. GhanaatianPhysics Department, Payame $oor University, Jahrom, IranH. HoraDepartment of Theoretical Physics, University of $ew South Wales, Sydney 2052, AustraliaJournal Article20101103Following our previous presentation of a new three-fold symmetry for derivation of the magic numbers of nuclei based upon a quark state model of nuclei, here the nuclear binding energy is obtained from such new perspective. From this point of view, since each nucleon is made of three quarks, the binding energy of nuclei contains a volume term proportional to 3A (A is mass number). By considering the asymmetry in the number of up and down quarks and also coulomb correction, a new formula is presented that calculates the nuclear binding energy in terms of only $ and Z numbers for most of the stable nuclides.<br />PACS: 21.10.Dr, 21.90.+90, 21.10.-K, 12.38.Mh, 12.90.+bSpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Common fixed points of jointly asymptotically nonexpansive mappings209216214410.22099/ijsts.2011.2144ENM. AbbasDepartment of Mathematics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, 54792-Lahore, PakistanH. KhanDepartment of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Qatar University, Doha 2713, QatarJournal Article20090810A definition of two jointly asymptotically nonexpansive mappings S and T on uniformly convex Banach space E is studied to approximate common fixed points of two such mappings through weak and strong convergence of an Ishikawa type iteration scheme generated by S and T on a bounded closed and convex subset of E. As a consequence of the notion of two jointly asymptotically nonexpansive maps, we can relax the very commonly used strong condition “F(S) and F(T) has a nonempty intersection” with the weaker assumption “either F(S) is nonempty or F(T) is nonempty”. Our convergence results are refinements and generalizations of several recent results from the current literatureSpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Atom-Photon Thermal Entanglement in Nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings Models217222214510.22099/ijsts.2011.2145ENA. KeshavarzPhysics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranM. M. GolshanPhysics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranJournal Article20110406In this work we investigate the thermal entanglement between two-level atoms and photons in a nonlinear cavity. We consider intensity-dependent couplings and calculate the negativity, as a measure of atom-photon<br />entanglement. The cavity is assumed to be at a temperature T, so that all number of photons, and at the same time, both atomic states, with definite probabilities, are present. We then demonstrate a condition under which the intensity-dependent coupling leads to entanglement. It is also shown that, as in the case of linear Jaynes- Cummings model, the thermal states of atoms and photons are never separable.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Function spaces on tensor product of semigroups223228214610.22099/ijsts.2011.2146ENH. RahimiDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, P. O. Box 13185/768, Tehran, IranJournal Article20101213In this paper, we characterize the function space and -space of the [topological] tensor product of [topological]<br />semigroups. As a consequence, for arbitrary [topological] groups and , it will be shown that is an<br />extension of by a proper normal subgroup N i,e. <br /><br /><br /> .SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Evolutionary analysis of genes involved in cement gland development in anurans229234214710.22099/ijsts.2011.2147ENM. NokhbatolfoghahaiBiology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranP. TsimbouriCentre for Cell Engineering, Institute of Molecular Cell & Systems Biology, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UKJ. B. WilsonCollege of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UKJ. R. DownieInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UKJournal Article20110302The cement gland (CG) is a transient organ, found in most anuran embryos and early larvae and located normally on the front of the head. Its sticky secretion allows newly hatched larvae to attach to the egg jelly or to another support later and remain hidden and stationary until feeding starts. Our ultrastructural studies showed that prominence structure of the CG in some species exists, but is lacking in some others. Previous work has shown that a large number of genes have a role in CG development in Xenopus laevis. The aim of the present study is to find out whether the loss of cement gland formation for those species studied here occurs because of missing genes or for other reasons.<br />In order to test whether some of these genes are present in other anuran species, especially in those where the CG does not form, genomic DNAs were examined for sequence similarity by low stringency hybridization. Sequences from three different genes with a role in controlling CG development in Xenopus (otx-2, xcg-1 and xag-1) were individually hybridised with genomic DNA of four species of anurans (X. laevies, Leptodactylus fuscus, Phyllomedusa trinitatis and Physalaemus pustulosus) and one species of rodent (Muss musculus domesticus strain C57Bl/ 6). The results showed that Xenopus probes can detect the presence of potential homologues of all three genes in the different species. For the two genes most specifically involved in CG development, xcg-1 and xag-1, both are clearly present, even in the two species which lack CG development, though in one of these, P. trinitatis, xag-1 shows considerable difference from the other species. At this stage, we can conclude that the missing cement gland for those species studied here is not due to a lack of the genes responsible for the gland development.<br />In order to carry this work further, in situ hybridisation should be used to determine the actual expression patterns of these genes.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Green and efficient synthesis of azo Schiff bases235242214810.22099/ijsts.2011.2148ENM. ZareiDepartment of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas 71961, IranA. JarrahpourDepartment of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranJournal Article20110801Pure azo Schiff bases were readily and conveniently accessible in high yields by mixing of the reagents either as aqueous slurry, or by grinding at room temperature. This method, unlike a classical method, needs neither harsh conditions nor organic solvents. The satisfactory results were obtained with excellent yields, short reaction time, and operational simplicity in the experimental procedure. Comparison of time and yield in this green method with the classical methods is also performed.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627635320110916Foliar anatomy of the genus Potentilla L. (ROSACEAE) in Iran and its taxonomic implication243256214910.22099/ijsts.2011.2149ENM. B. FaghirDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, IranF. AttarCentral Herbarium of Tehran University, School of Biology, University College of Science Tehran, IranB. ErtterUniversity and Jepson Herbaria, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-2465, USAJournal Article20100509Leaf anatomy of 27 species of Potentilla L. (Rosaceae), representing 9 sections and four related genera, especially Tylosperma Botsch., Schistophyllidium (Juz. ex Fed.) Ikonn., Drymocallis Fourr. ex Rydb., and Sibbaldia L. from Iran were studied using light microscopy. The most outstanding characters of blade and midrib were measured. The result revealed a number of taxonomically important characters e.g., trichome types, stomata positions, mesophyll types, crystals location and vascular bundle shape. Three types of stomata, two main types of mesophyll and two main types of vascular bundles were identified. Leaf anatomical evidence is of taxonomic value and reflect the ecological differences in the studied species.