SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Multiplier in BL-algebras95103198910.22099/ijsts.2014.1989ENR. Tayebi KhoramiDepartment of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, IranA. Borumand SaeidDepartment of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, IranJournal Article20130127In this paper, we introduce the notion of multiplier in -algebra and study relationships between multipliers and some special mappings, likeness closure operators, homomorphisms and ( -derivations in -algebras. We introduce the concept of idempotent multipliers in BL-algebra and weak congruence and obtain an interconnection between idempotent multipliers and weak congruences. Also, we introduce the special multiplier and study some properties. Finally, we show that if is a boolean algebra, then the set of all multipliers of is a -algebra under some conditions.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Entire sequence spaces defined on locally convex Hausdorff topological space105109199010.22099/ijsts.2014.1990ENM. MursaleenDepartment of Mathematics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, IndiaS. K. SharmaDepartment of Mathematics, Model Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kot Bhalwal-181122, J & K, IndiaJournal Article20130211In this paper we introduce entire sequence spaces defined by a sequence of modulus functions . We study some topological properties of these spaces and prove some inclusion relations.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526On the range of a derivation111115199110.22099/ijsts.2014.1991ENA. HosseiniKashmar Higher Education Institute, Kashmar, IranM. HassaniDepartment of Mathematics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IranA. NiknamDepartment of Mathematics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IranJournal Article20120812Let be a Banach algebra and a derivation. In this paper, it is proved, under certain conditions, that , where is the Jacobson radical of . Moreover, we prove that if is unital and is a continuous derivation, then , where denotes the set of all primitive ideals such that is commutative, denotes the set of all maximal (modular) ideals such that is commutative, and is the set of all non-zero multiplicative linear functionals from into . In addition, we present several results about the range of a derivation on algebras having the property ( ).SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526On Covers of Acts over Semigroups117121199210.22099/ijsts.2014.1992ENM. A. NaghipoorDepartment of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, P. O. Box 71454, Shiraz, IranM. ErshadDepartment of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, P. O. Box 71454, Shiraz, IranJournal Article20130306Let S be a monoid and X a class of S-acts which is closed under coproducts. The object of this article is to find conditions under which all S-acts have X-precovering. We have shown that the existence of torsion-free precovering implies the existence of torsion-free covering. This work is an attempt to further facilitate the study of the conjecture that all S-acts have flat cover.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Chain least squares method and ill-posed problems123132199310.22099/ijsts.2014.1993ENE. BabolianDepartment of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
P. O. Box 775-14515, Tehran, IranA. AbdollahiDepartment of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
P. O. Box 775-14515, Tehran, IranS. ShahmoradFaculty of Mathematical Science, University of Tabriz, P. O. Box 51664-16471, Tabriz, IranJournal Article20121230The main purpose of this article is to increase the efficiency of the least squares method in numerical solution of ill-posed functional and physical equations. Determining the least squares of a given function in an arbitrary set is often an ill-posed problem. In this article, by defining artificial constraint and using Lagrange multipliers method, the attempt is to turn -dimensional least squares problems into ones, in a way that the condition number of the corresponding system with -dimensional problem will be low. At first, the new method is introduced for and -term basis, then the presented method is generalized for -term basis. Finally, the numerical solution of some ill-posed problems like Fredholm integral equations of the first kind and singularly perturbed linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind are approximated by chain least squares method. Numerical comparisons indicate that the chain least squares method yields accurate and stable approximations in many cases.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Proposed optimization method for design of permanent magnet Guideways with high temperature superconductors133144199410.22099/ijsts.2014.1994ENA. HekmatiElectrical and Computer Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University,
Evin, Zip code: 1983963113, Tehran, IranJournal Article20130507Superconducting materials are capable of trapping extremely high magnetic fields. This property and Meissner effect of superconductors causes a levitation force between bulk superconductors and a permanent magnet (PM). This levitation force has possible industrial applications such as Permanent Magnet Guideways (PMG). Because of the high price of permanent magnets, the optimization of PMG design is necessary and beneficial. A heuristic optimization method has been proposed for the optimum arrangement and dimensions of permanent magnets in different structures of PMGs, which guarantee the satisfactory levitation performance. Therefore, finite element simulation, based on the estimation of penetration depth and self-inductance of the superconductor disk, has been utilized. The variation of the PMG features, such as its dimensions and cost versus the system parameters, such as the levitation height and the superconductor disk characteristics have been presented as the optimization results. Based on the optimization process outputs, PMG prototypes have been fabricated and tested successfully.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Geochemical behavior of Mo and precious metals during supergene enrichment in the SarCheshmeh porphyry Cu deposit, Iran145158199510.22099/ijsts.2014.1995ENB. ShafieiDepartment of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan, IranJournal Article20120801Supergene oxidation-leaching and secondary sulfide enrichment in the SarCheshmeh porphyry Cu-Mo deposit generated a supergene profile to depths of 20 to 80 meters with oxide ore reserve about 22 Mt. @1.08% Cu and sulfides ore reserve~106Mt.@1.27% Cu. Geochemical distribution and behavior of trace metals associated with Cu namely Mo, Au, and Ag in the supergene profile of the SarCheshmeh were poorly understood and documented. To this aim, using a relatively large geochemical dataset along with theoretical data allowed distribution of the metals in the supergene profile to be clarified, and to be discussed behavior of Mo, Au, and Ag during supergene enrichment process of the SarCheshmeh deposit. Constraints on distribution and mobility of trace metals in the supergene environment of the SarCheshmeh deposit indicated that Au strongly enriched in the chalcocite zone. During supergene oxidation and leaching, Mo significantly remained in the leached cap, whereas Ag tends to be partially fixed in oxidized ore zone and locally enriched in chalcocite zone. Observed difference in the geochemical mobility of the metals is function of change in pH, Eh and metal-transporting capacity of supergene solutions. Under high acidic condition of supergene solutions which corresponded to oxidation of pyrite-rich primary ores (e.g., sericitized samples), mobility of Mo is greatly restricted with formation of ferrimolybdite in leached zone which has prevented supergene sulfide enrichment of Mo. This caused local enrichment of Mo (average~0.020 %) associated with Fe-oxides in leached ores which are supported by moderately positive correlation between Mo and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (r=+0.75) in such ores. Under such conditions, Au is strongly mobilized possibly as auric-chloride complexes rather than thiosulfates, and appreciably enriched in chalcocite zone. This is consistent with the low neutralizing capacity of the pyrite-rich primary ores along supergene solutions pathway and also semi-arid climate of the SarCheshmeh region. Unlike Au, soluble Ag in high acidic supergene solutions tends to be locally fixed in oxidized zone and to some extend enriched in chalcocite zone. This could relate to rapid decomposition of the halide complexes, consequently leaving silver as Ag-halide minerals, arjento-jarosite and/or native silver in oxidized ores without gold. This is supported by the negative correlation between Ag and Au values in oxidized ores (r= -0.28). Partial enrichment of Mo in chalcocite zone indicate that pH of supergene solutions derived from oxidation of pyrite-poor ores (biotitized ores) could remain above the stability field of ferrimolybdite (pH=5); this led to mobilization of Mo and locally enrichment of Mo in chalcocite zone. Where these conditions apply there may be local retention of Au in the form of native gold within leached ores.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of four species from Arnebia genus growing wild in Iran159164199610.22099/ijsts.2014.1996ENA. H. DoulahDepartment of Nursing, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IranN. NeisiResearch Institute for Infectious Diseases of Digestive System and Dept of Virology, The School of Medicine, Jundi Shapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IranR. ZekavatiDepartment of Nursing, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IranM. H. FarjamDepartment of Chemistry, Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, IranJournal Article20130711Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of methanolic crude extracts from aerial parts of four <em>Arnebia</em> species namely <em>Arnebia fimbriopetala</em>, <em>Arnebia linearifolia</em>, <em>Arnebia garandiflora</em>, <em>Arnebia tubata</em> were screened. Total phenolic contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 2.2 ± 0.13 (<em>A. fimbriopetala</em>) to 1.6 ± 1.0 mg (<em>Arnebia tubata</em>) gallic acid µmol equivalent /g extract. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays. All of the four <em>Arnebia</em> polar extracts showed good radical scavenging activity with an averaged IC<sub>50</sub> value of 3.3 ± 0.15 µg/ml. DPPH assay results showed good correlations with the total phenolic contents of the plants, measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The antimicrobial activity was tested by using the disc-diffusion (DD) method and determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the macro dilution broth technique. The tested plants showed a mild antimicrobial activity against all nine tested strains. The best result belonged to the methanol extract of <em>A. linearifolia</em> against <em>Bacillus pumilus</em> with MIC value of 85µg/ml. Ampicillin, gentamicin and ketoconazole were used as references. The results obtained indicate that tested plant species from <em>Arnebia</em> genus may become important in the obtainment of noticeable sources of compounds with health protective potential, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Bioavailability and speciation of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils neighboring an industrial complex in northwest Isfahan, Iran165173199710.22099/ijsts.2014.1997ENG. ForghaniFaculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahrood, Shahrood, IranG. A. KazemiFaculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahrood, Shahrood, IranA. QishlaqiFaculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahrood, Shahrood, IranJournal Article20130630The mobility and bioavailability of trace elements in the agricultural soils are extremely important in assessing the risk of toxicity to the growing plants. A five step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) has been employed to study the speciation of As, Sb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn in 18 soil samples neighboring an industrial complex in Isfahan, central Iran. Enrichment factor (EF) calculation shows that in the soils studied, Cd and Fe are the most and the least enriched elements, respectively. Sequential extraction results indicate that although the total concentration of Ni, Sb, As, Cr and Cu is high, their concentration in the exchangeable plus carbonate fractions is rather low. This suggests that these elements are not easily transferred from soil to the plants. The high proportions of Cr, Cu and Fe in both organic matter and residual fractions, reduces the phytoavailability and the toxicity of these metals. On the other hand, Zn, Pb and Cd are strongly associated with exchangeable plus carbonate fractions, much more bioavailable than other studied elements. Good correlation between total contents and concentration of elements in each fraction indicates that the studied elements, excluding Fe, are mainly derived from the anthropogenic sources. Remediation measures and soil amendment practices are therefore recommended for the study site.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as an efficient, chemoselective and reusable catalyst in the acetylation and Formylation of alcohols and phenols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature175186199810.22099/ijsts.2014.1998ENM. EsmaeilpourChemistry Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranA. R. SardarianChemistry Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, IranJournal Article20131107Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) was used as an efficient, cheap and stable Brønsted catalyst for acetylation of alcohols and phenols and formylation of alcohols under solvent-free conditions. Various primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols were acetylated with acetic anhydride as an acetylating agent under solvent-free conditions in the presence of catalytic amount of DBSA at room temperature. Also, formylation of alcohols was catalyzed by DBSA with ethyl formate in high to excellent yields. This method showed high selectivity in acetylation and formylation of various alcohols and phenols. DBSA was recovered and reused in four successive runs without significant deterioration in catalytic activity.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526Effect of pH on the surface morphology and structural properties of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by simple sol-gel method187191199910.22099/ijsts.2014.1999ENN. M. GanesanDepartment of Physics, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, ErodeN. MuthukumarasamyDepartment of Physics, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, IndiaR. BalasundaraprabhuDepartment of Physics, P.S.G. College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, IndiaT. S. SenthilDepartment of Physics, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, IndiaJournal Article20130904Titanium dioxide nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature. Titanium isoprophoxide and absolute ethanol were used as precursors to prepare the sol. The pH of the solution was adjusted by adding nitric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. The prepared TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocrystals were annealed at 325°C, 425°C and 525°C respectively. The effect of pH on the surface morphology and structural properties of TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocrystals were studied.SpringerIranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)1028-627638220140526High performance liquid chromatography analysis, production and brief comparative study of citric acid producing microorganisms from spoiled onions in and around Vellore district193197200010.22099/ijsts.2014.2000ENV. SuneethaSchool of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore: 632 014, Tamil Nadu, IndiaJournal Article20130625India is one of the largest producers of onion in the world producing over 13,920,000 metric tons. Storage is a major problem which leads to spoilage, and microbes play an important role in the spoilage. In this present study, biotechnologically important strains have been isolated from the spoiled onions by using appropriate enriched media. Two potential strains were isolated and a brief Comparative study was done for fungal and bacterial strains in terms of citric acid production and the production of citric acid was also checked by using the designed media named as PAPS. HPLC analysis was performed to confirm the presence of citric acid in the culture medium. Partial recovery was done by filtration and precipitating oxalic acid as calcium oxalate. Optimization was done for various physical and nutritional parameters such as carbon source, temperature, pH and incubation period in order to recover maximum amount of citric acid.