Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Numerical solution of Reynold’s equation governing noncircular gas bearing system using radial basis function
389
397
EN
H.
Rasooli Shooroki
Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
R.
Rashidi Meybodi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
S. M.
Karbassi
Faculty of Advanced Education, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran
G. B.
Loghmani
Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2555
In this paper, the static characteristics of two-lobe, three-lobe and four-lobe noncircular gas journal bearing systems are
studied in detail. The Reynold’s equation governing the noncircular gas bearing systems are analyzed by using Radial Basis
Functions (RBF). The solutions are obtained numerically by solving systems of algebraic equations. The equilibrium position
of the rotor is obtained without using the trial and error method; which is the merit of our method.
Reynold’s equation,noncircular gas bearings,Radial Basis Function
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2555.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2555_85c60ec37dc6ac51bf5b56b645f983b6.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
A NSFD scheme for Lotka–Volterra food web model
399
414
EN
S.
Zibaei
Department of Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Vali-e-Asr
University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
M.
Namjoo
Department of Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Vali-e-Asr
University of Rafsanjan , Rafsanjan, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2556
A nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) scheme has been constructed and analyzed for a mathematical model that <br /><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">describes Lotka</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">–</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Volterra food web model. This new discrete system has the same stability properties as the</span></span> <br />continuous model and,on the whole, it preservesthe same local asymptotic stability properties. Linearized stability <br /><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">theory and Schur</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">–</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: xx-small;">Cohn criteria are used for local asymptoticstability of this discrete time model. Numerical</span></span> <br />results are given to support the results.
Lotka–Volterra,nonstandard finite difference scheme,Stability
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2556.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2556_15485c9c4d6bac19c0ab1d9049d4345b.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
E1, E2 and M1 transitions between n=3 levels in magnesium-like tungsten
415
421
EN
G.
Günday Konan
Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey
S.
Kabakçı
Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey
L.
Özdemir
Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2557
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">Electric dipole (E1) transitions of 3s-3p and 3p-3d, and electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) transitions between fine structure levels of 3s3p and 3p</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">2 </span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">in Mg-like tungsten (W</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">62+</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">) have been studied by multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method. Multielectron ions of high-Z elements are of interest in atomic structure theory. In this work Breit-Pauli relativistic contributions and correlation effects have been considered. The magnesium-like tungsten lines obtained from this work are compared with other theoretical and experimental results. </span>
MCHF method,allowed and forbidden transitions,transition rates,wavelengths
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2557.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2557_96a6195489c4d481880b2c0965522a90.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Analytical solutions for the fractional nonlinear telegraph equation using a modified homotopy perturbation and separation of variables methods
423
433
EN
H.
Kheiri
Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
S.
Irandoust-Pakchin
Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
M.
Javidi
Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2558
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">In this paper, first a new homotopy perturbation method for solving a fractional order nonlinear telegraph equation is introduced. By applying the proposed method, the nonlinear equation is translated to linear equations for per iteration of homotopy perturbation method. Then, the obtained problems are solved with separation method. In the examples, it is illustrated that the exact solution is obtained in one iteration by conveniently separating source term of equation. </span>
fractional,Telegraph equation,Caputo derivative,homotopy perturbation,separation of variables,Mittag-Leffler
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2558.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2558_19fcab0c6999ed50cf09038e2fc4e390.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
A new model for vulnerability assessment of drought in Iran using Percent of Normal Precipitation Index (PNPI)
435
440
EN
M.
Masoudi
Department of Natural Resources and Environment, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
S.
Hakimi
Department of Natural Resources and Environment, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
hakimi.fsh@gmail.com
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2559
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">The Percent of Normal Precipitation Index (PNPI) is a widely used drought index to provide good estimations about the intensity, magnitude and spatial extent of droughts. The objective of this study was analyzing spatial pattern of drought by PNPI index. In this paper, according to the data of 40 stations in Iran, during 1967-2009, the pattern of drought hazard is evaluated. Influenced zone of each station was specified by Thiessen method. An attempt was made to create a new model of drought hazard using GIS. Three criteria for drought were studied and considered to define areas under vulnerability. Drought hazard criteria used in the present model include: maximum severity of drought in the period, trend of drought, and the maximum number of sequential arid years. Both the vulnerability indicator map and also final hazard map are classified into 5 hazard classes of drought: None, slight, moderate, severe and very severe. The final drought vulnerability map was prepared by overlaying three criteria maps in the GIS and the final hazard classes were defined on the basis of hazard scores arrived at by the mean of the main indicators, deploying the new model. The final vulnerability map shows that severe hazard areas (58% of the country) which are observed more in the northwestern, southeastern and central parts of the country are much more widespread than areas under other hazard classes. </span>
Drought,PNPI,GIS,hazard map,Iran
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2559.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2559_258f784e4a2bec508730c626b6028437.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Numerical modeling of the temporal response of back-gated metalsemiconductor- metal photodetector in an equilibrium condition
441
444
EN
A.
Habibpour
Depatment of physics, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun Branch, Kazerun, Iran
N.
Das
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, Australia
H. R.
Mashayekhi
Faculty of Science, University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2560
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">We have simulated the carrier concentration and temporal response characteristics of a Back-Gated Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (BG-MSM) photodetector in one dimension as a function of optical pulse position on the active region in an equilibrium condition (without bias voltage to the photodetector). We have adopted a nonlinear ambipolar transport model to simulate the behavior of photo-generated carriers in the active region of the BG-MSM photodetector. From the simulation results, it is observed that for optical pulse positions in the cathode region, the magnitude of the response current is exactly the same but opposite that of the anode region. The response of the photodetector is zero when a pulse is positioned at the center of the active region. This important feature of the device could make it attractive for micro-scale positioning of highly sensitive instruments. Our simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. </span>
BG-MSM Photodetector,equilibrium condition,ambipolar transport,Simulation
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2560.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2560_78a43199e054cf68aafc6f8dc1f77ee6.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Structure of quasi ordered ∗-vector spaces
445
453
EN
G. H.
Esslamzadeh
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
M.
Moazami Goodarzi
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
F.
Taleghani
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2561
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">Let </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">(𝑋,𝑋</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">+</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">) </span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">be a quasi ordered </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">∗</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">-vector space with order unit, that is, a </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">∗</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">-vector space </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">𝑋 </span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">with order unite together with a cone </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">𝑋</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">+</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">⊆𝑋</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. Our main goal is to find a condition weaker than properness of </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">𝑋</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">, which su</span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">ffi</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">ces for fundamental results of ordered vector space theory to work. We show that having a non-empty state space or equivalently having a non-negative order unit is a suitable replacement for properness of </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">𝑋+</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">. At first, we examine real vector spaces and then the complex case. Then we apply the results to self adjoint unital subspaces of unital </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="KO">∗</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">-algebras to find direct and shorter proofs of some of the existing results in the literature. </span>
Quasi ordered ∗-vector space,bounded algebra,quasi operator system,Archimedeanization
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2561.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2561_38b0fd0cff8b3aaffb439bd8ee4cc2e6.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Existence solutions for nonlocal fractional differential equation with nonlinear boundary conditions
455
461
EN
N.
Nyamoradi
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, 67149 Kermanshah, Iran
nyamoradi@razi.ac.ir
H.
Alaei Dizaji
Department of Mathematics, Payame Noor University, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2562
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">In this paper, by employing the Guo-Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem in a cone, we study the existence of positive solutions to the following nonlocal fractional boundary value problems </span>
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">{ </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝐷</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">0</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">+ </span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝛼 </span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝑢(𝑡) = 𝑓(𝑡, 𝑢(𝑡)), 𝑡 ∈ (0,1), 𝑢𝑡 + 𝑢′(0) = 12 [𝐻1(𝜑𝑢) + ∫ 𝐻2 𝐸(𝑠 𝑢𝑠)𝑑𝑠 , 𝑢1) + 𝑢′(1) = 0, </span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">c </span>
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">where </span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">c</span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝐷0</span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">+ </span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝛼</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">is the standard Caputo derivative of order </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝛼 1 < 𝛼< 2, 𝐸⊆ (0,1) </span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">is some measurable set. We provide conditions on </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝑓 𝐻1, 𝐻2 </span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">and </span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;" lang="JA">𝜑</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">such that the problem exhibits at least one positive solution. </span>
Cone,fixed point theorem,standard Caputo,derivative
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2562.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2562_89c639061537ef57883fe24a62f10c88.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds
463
471
EN
A. R.
Hajipour
Pharmaceutical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan
University of Technology, Isfahan 84156, Iran
S. H.
Nazemzadeh
Pharmaceutical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan
University of Technology, Isfahan 84156, Iran
H.
Karimi
Pharmaceutical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan
University of Technology, Isfahan 84156, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2563
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">An efficient method for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of a wide range of aromatic compounds in good to excellent yields under solvent-free conditions, using iron zirconium phosphate (ZPFe) was investigated. The catalyst is easy to prepare and shows interesting catalytic properties. The catalyst was characterized by some instrumental techniques such as XRD, ICP-OES, SEM and TEM. A wide variety of benzene derivatives reacted easily with benzoyl chloride and some of its derivatives to afford the corresponding aromatic ketones in clean and good yields with the para isomer predominating typically using 3mol% of catalyst. The use of inexpensive materials, simple and clean work-up, short reaction times in most cases and good yields are the main advantages of this method. This work introduces a new application of this catalyst, not described in the literature until now. Also, the catalyst can be recovered and reused for three times without a significant loss in its activity and selectivity. </span>
Iron zirconium phosphate,nanoparticles,acylation,Solvent-free,solid catalyst
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2563.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2563_12abf4a75c21b1b2ed8a550b3c2bbe21.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Numerical technique for integro-differential equations arising in oscillating magnetic fields
473
479
EN
M.
Ghasemi
Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences,
Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2564
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">In this paper, we propose the Chebyshev wavelet approximation for the numerical solution of a class of integro-di</span><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;"><span style="font-family: Cambria Math,Cambria Math; font-size: xx-small;">ff</span></span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">erential equation which describes the charged particle motion for certain configurations of oscillating magnetic fields. We show that the Chebyshev approximation transform an integral equation to an explicit system of linear algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the new technique. </span>
Integro-differential equation,Chebyshev wavelet,charged particle motion,oscillating magnetic field
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2564.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2564_460fcd2e3895b13df5b4ce1025525b93.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Effective workflow for optimization of intelligent well completions
481
487
EN
T.
Behrouz
Institute of Petroleum Engineering (IPE), School of Chemical Engineering,
Faculties of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
M. R.
Rasaei
Institute of Petroleum Engineering (IPE), School of Chemical Engineering,
Faculties of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
R.
Masoudi
Institute of Petroleum Engineering (IPE), School of Chemical Engineering,
Faculties of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2565
<br /><span style="font-size: xx-small;">Intelligent wells provide the ability for monitoring and control of downhole environment of the wells. Downhole monitoring is achieved through sensors while control is realized with downhole valves. Recovery from intelligent wells can be improved by proper selection of candidate wells/fields and optimizing the number, location and performance of the installed Interval Control Valves. Design criteria, however, suffer from incomplete understanding of the precise determination of these parameters, their interaction and combined effects. </span> <br />Having known the candidate well, we presented a new workflow to optimize the number, location and performance of Interval Control Valves as the main element of intelligent wells. This is a very computationally demanding and time consuming task; therefore a proxy model is developed and applied to speed up the process. Primary evaluations show that optimization of each parameter independently is not the best practice because of their interrelation and combined effects on objective function. An integrated optimization approach is therefore developed in which all the Interval Control Valves’ parameters are optimized together during the process. Considerable improvement in cumulative oil production and control of produced water is achieved by applying this method on real field data.
Intelligent well,Optimization,proxy model,workflow,interval control valve (ICV)
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2565.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2565_bf062ef8fb77d7f45954165c1a95757a.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
38
4
2014
12
22
Synthesis and characterization of new acyclic octadentate ligand and its complexes
489
497
EN
F. H. A.
Al-Jeboori
Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
K. k.
Hammud
Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
M. J.
Al-Jeboori
College of Education-Ibn-Al-Haitham, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
10.22099/ijsts.2014.2566
<span style="font-size: xx-small;">The reaction of an equivalent of 2- mercaptoethyl ammonium chloride with an equivalent of 2,6-diformyl -4- methyl phenol produced monoamine which was reacted with half equivalent of 1,2-diamine ethane to produce ethylene-bis-6-(2-mercapto-ethyl-imine)-methyl -4- methyl phenol [H</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">4</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">L]. The ligand was reacted with metal ions[Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II)] at reflux ethanol, under nitrogen at atmosphere. The ligand and derivative 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol and metal ion complexes were characterized by elemental microanalysis, IR, UV, (</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">1</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">H, </span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">13</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">C, </span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">1</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">H-</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">1</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">H, </span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">1</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">H-</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">13</span><span style="font-size: xx-small;">C)NMR and mass spectroscopies and suggested structures and octahedral for the complexes [Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni] while complexes of [Fe, Zn, Cd, and Hg] suggested tetrahedral geometry and a distorted square planar geometry around copper complex. </span>
Schiff base,metal ion,2-mercaptoethyl ammonium chloride,Synthesis,acyclic octadentate
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2566.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2566_7e6b8b7d40182dd87f66611188880820.pdf