Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Separation of the two dimensional Laplace operator by the disconjugacy property
1
6
EN
H. A.
Atia
Current Address: Mathematics Department, Rabigh College of Science and Art, King Abdulaziz University,
P. O. Box 344, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
h_a_atia@hotmail.com
R. A.
Mahmoud
Zagazig University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Zagazig, Egypt
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2048
In this paper we have studied the separation for the Laplace differential operator of the form<br /> <br /><br /> <br /><br /> , , <br />in the Hilbert space ², with potential , ¹. We show that certain properties of positive solutions of the disconjugate second order differential expression P[u] imply the separation of minimal and maximal operators determined by P i.e, the property that ² ², ². A property leading to a new proof and generalization of a 1971 separation criterion due to Everitt and Giertz. This result will allow the development of several new sufficient conditions for separation and various inequalities associated with separation. A final result of this paper shows that the disconjugacy of ² for some 0 implies the separation of P.
Separation,Laplace differential operator,Disconjugacy,Hilbert space
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2048.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2048_96e1568a53e04790a4ec6f38dab98e6a.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
ZnO mediated a cheap, efficient, and mild synthesis of unsymmetrical carboxylic acid anhydrides
7
11
EN
M.
Hosseini-Sarvari
Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
hossaini@shirazu.ac.ir
Z.
Mardaneh
Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2049
The treatment equimolar quantities of carboxylic acids with acid chlorides in the presence of ZnO brings about<br />highly efficient unsymmetrical anhydrides at room temperature in solvent-free condition. Reactivity trends<br />favored formation of the product using both electron deficient and rich aryl acids and acid chlorides.
ZnO,Unsymmetrical anhydrides,Solvent-free conditions,Carboxylic acid
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2049.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2049_6b3b86f88b8cd2945a36e749c4a6f444.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Chebyshev cardinal functions for solving volterra-fredholm integrodifferential equations using operational matrices
13
24
EN
H.
Heydari
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
Z.
Avazzadeh
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
G. B.
Loghmani
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
loghmani@yazduni.ac.ir
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2050
In this paper, an effective direct method to determine the numerical solution of linear and nonlinear Fredholm and Volterra integral and integro-differential equations is proposed. The method is based on expanding the required approximate solution as the elements of Chebyshev cardinal functions. The operational matrices for the integration and product of the Chebyshev cardinal functions are described in detail. These matrices play the important role of reducing an integral equation to a system of algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are shown, which confirms the validity and applicability of the presented technique.
Integro-differential equation,mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations,chebyshev cardinal
functions,operational matrix of integration
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2050.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2050_32aa03656fddb1a28db092a3aca277d3.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Three-component synthesis of propargylamine derivatives via 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone-copper(II) complexes as an efficient catalyst under solvent-free conditions
25
35
EN
H.
Sharghi
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
A.
Khoshnood
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
R.
Khalifeh
Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2051
Highly active Cu (II) complex with 1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone as a cheap and accessable ligand could be used as a catalyst for the preparation of structurally different propargylamines from a one-pot, three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, aldehydes, and secondary amines with high yields under solvent-free conditions. The 1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone is a very efficient Cu(II) scavenger that is able to catalyse the A3-coupling reaction without pre synthesis of the catalyst.
Propargylamines,anthraquinone,A3-coupling,Solvent-free
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2051.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2051_dfe493f58cffd329b1650803be4a9605.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Physiological responses of fennel seedling to four environmental stresses
37
46
EN
M.
Nourimand
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
S.
Mohsenzadeh
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
mohsenzadeh@susc.ac.ir
Jaime A.
Teixeira da Silva
Faculty of Agriculture and Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University,
Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2054
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is widely cultivated for its edible, strongly-flavored leaves, fruits, seeds and<br />medicinal uses. As the wild and cultivated plants are influenced by environmental stresses, the effects of salt (25, 50 and 75 mM NaCl), nitrogen and iron deficiency (0 N, 0.5 N of Hoagland’s solution, 0 Fe and 0.5 Fe of<br />Hoagland’s solution), 2°C cold (2, 3 and 4 h) and drought (3, 5 and 7 days) stresses on growth, pigment content, and antioxidant activity of fennel at the seedling stage were evaluated. All four stresses resulted in a significant reduction of fresh and dry weights, and chlorophyll a and b and β-carotene content of seedlings. The antioxidant activity of seedling extracts also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all stresses except for 5 and 7 days of drought.
antioxidant activity,cold stress,Drought,Iron deficiency Nitrogen deficiency,Salinity
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2054.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2054_f81b1e40c0e58397fb7c4306b9c9a6f5.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Pantic B-spline wavelets and their application for solving linear integral equations
47
50
EN
A.
Askari-Hemmat
Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman, Iran
International Center for Science, High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman, Iran
askari@mail.uk.ac.ir
Z.
Rahbani
Department of Mathematics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2055
In this work we deal with the question: how can one improve the approximation level for some nonlinear integral equations? Good candidates for this aim are semi orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and their duals. Although there are different works in this area, only B-spline of degree at most 2 are used for this approximation. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their duals, then we will show that, by using them, one can have better approximation results for the solution of integral equations in comparison with less degrees or other kinds of scaling functions. Some numerical examples show their attractiveness and usefulness
Integral equations,B-spline scaling function,dual functions,wavelets
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2055.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2055_0d93e86aa239637c009a7b4d057d2e70.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Biofacies and palaeoecology of the Jahrum Formation in Lar area, Zagros Basin, (SW Iran)
51
60
EN
E.
Nafarieh
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
H.
Vaziri-Moghaddam
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
A.
Taheri
Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Geology, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
A.
Ghabeishavi
Department of Geology, National Iranian South Oil Company, Ahvaz, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2056
Biofacies and palaeoecology of the limestone of the Jahrum Formation in the Lar area in the southwest of Iran (Zagros Basin) is addressed in this paper. Our detailed analysis of biofacies and palaeoecology shows that the Jahrum Formation in the studied area were deposited in a carbonate open shelf dominated by heterozoan and, subordinately, photozoan skeletal assemblages. Based on analysis of larger benthic foraminiferal assemblages and biofacies features, two major depositional environments are identified. These include inner shelf and middle shelf environments. The inner shelf facies is characterized by wackestone-packstone, dominated by various taxa of imperforate foraminifera. The middle shelf is represented by wackestone-packstone with a diverse assemblage of larger foraminifera with perforate wall. The distribution of the larger benthic foraminifera indicates that shallow marine carbonate sediments of the Jahrum Formation at the studied areas have been deposited in the photic zone of tropical to subtropical oceans.
Biofacies,palaeoecology,Jahrum Formation,Eocene,Zagros Basin
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2056.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2056_27be03022b19df5b6c25be3cc8dd9e84.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Numerics of stochastic parabolic differential equations with stable finite difference schemes
61
70
EN
A.R.
Soheili
Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences,
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
M.
Arezoomandan
Department of Mathematics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2057
In the present article, we focus on the numerical approximation of stochastic partial differential equations of Itˆo type with space-time white noise process, in particular, parabolic equations. For each case of additive and<br />multiplicative noise, the numerical solution of stochastic diffusion equations is approximated using two stochastic finite difference schemes and the stability and consistency conditions of the considered methods are analyzed. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the stochastic methods.
Stochastic partial differential equations of Itˆo type,finite difference methods,multiplicative noise,additive noise,Saul’yev method,Liu method,convergence,consistency,Stability
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2057.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2057_6c8ce9de845bd029089c18ed101bc2fb.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Effects of salt stress on photosystem II of canola plant (Barassica napus, L.) probing by chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements
71
76
EN
M.
Jafarinia
Department of Biology, University of Isfahan, Hezarjarib St., Isfahan, Iran
M.
Shariati
Department of Biology, University of Isfahan, Hezarjarib St., Isfahan, Iran
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2058
The changes of Chl a fluorescence induction curve in response to different salinity levels in Canola (Barassica napus, L.) plants were investigated. The canola seedlings were exposed to salt stress (100 mM and 200 mM NaCl) for 7 days and Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics was analysed. By using the OJIP-test, various parameters like VJ, area, N, φPo, φEo, ψo, RC/ABS and PIABS were calculated and compared at different salinity levels and compared with the control plants. The results showed that the parameters related to the donor site of electron in PSII [Fv/Fo, φPo and φPo /(1-φPo)] were constant and unaffected by salt stress. In contrast, the parameters dependent on the acceptor site of the electron such as VJ, area, N, φEo, ψo and ψo /(1- ψo) significantly decreased with an increase in salt concentration. Also, the multi parametric index PIABS (performance index) showed enough<br />sensitivity to salt stress as a useful parameter to screen the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in canola plant. Based on our results, we suggest that in response to salt stress the electron acceptor site of PSII, especially at fractions of the transfer of electron from QA to QB and QA redox turnovers is more affected. In conclusion, this fraction of electron transport chain of PSII is possibly the first and major target of salt stress at photosynthetic apparatus in canola plant.
Canola (Barassica napus L.),chlorophyll a fluorescence,OJIP-test, photosystem II,Salt stress
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2058.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2058_244ca5371fcb4eda0e04919a78be19ba.pdf
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
36
1
2012
02
06
Generalized fuzzy filters in ordered semigroups
77
86
EN
B.
Davvaz
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
davvaz@yazduni.ac.ir
A.
Khan
Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology,
Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2059
coding theory, fuzzy finite state machines, and fuzzy languages. In this paper, we introduce the concept of an (, )-fuzzy filter of an ordered semigroup , where , , , , with . Since the concept of (, )-fuzzy filter is an important and useful generalization of ordinary fuzzy filter, we discuss some fundamental aspects of (, )-fuzzy filters. An (, )-fuzzy filter is a generalization of the existing concept of a fuzzy filter. The concept of (, )-fuzzy filters is also introduced and some related properties are investigated. The relationships among ordinary fuzzy filters, (, )-fuzzy filters and (, )-fuzzy filters are discussed. We discuss the concept of (, )-fuzzy left (right and bi)-filters and provide some characterization theorems. Finally, we extend the concept of a fuzzy subgroup with thresholds to the concept of a fuzzy left (right and bi)-filter with thresholds of .
Semigroup,ordered semigroup,Fuzzy Set,filter,generalized fuzzy filter
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2059.html
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2059_e1d9e85b68cd7d6e286f67c81cfa4dfe.pdf