In this paper, the time-like hyperruled surfaces in the Minkowski 4-space and their algebraicinvariants are worked. Also some characteristic results are found about these algebraic invariants.

In this paper, the time-like hyperruled surfaces in the Minkowski 4-space and their algebraicinvariants are worked. Also some characteristic results are found about these algebraic invariants.

The angular dependent magnetoresistance oscillation (ADMRO) of the stage-2 IBr graphiteintercalation compound (GIC) was studied between 1.8 K and 110 K in magnetic fields between 1 and 9T. There was a series of peaks in the c-axis resistance as the field direction was changed from the c axisto the (001) plane. The field independence of the angular positions of the peaks, showing that theoscillation is not from the Shubnikov-de Haas effect, and the presence of the oscillation at hightemperatures indicate that the effect is semiclassic. The location and the relative amplitudes of the peaksshow that the ADMRO in this compound does not follow the predictions for the symmetrical corrugationmodel of the cylindrical Fermi surface. The reason is attributed to the presence of two cylindrical Fermisurfaces and zone folding of the Fermi surface by the periodicity of the IBr lattice in this compound.

In this paper the general relatively isotropic L -curvature Finsler metrics are studied. It isshown that on constant relatively Landsberg spaces, the concepts of weakly Landsbergian, Landsbergianand generalized Landsbergian metrics are equivalent. Some necessary conditions for a relativelyisotropic L -curvature Finsler metric to be a Riemannian metric are also found.

In the present paper axial distributions of plasma and floating potentials, electron and iondensities and EEDF have been measured in the DL region of a Hg discharge constriction. An attempt hasbeen made for the resolution of opposing charged layer structures in DL. Excitation processes in theconstriction region are studied. Using the linearization method for the nonstationary balance equationssystem and choosing appropriate discharge conditions, the step excitation rate by the electron impact for6 3 P 2 →7 1 S 0 transition in Hg is determined.

The Fisher information matrix for a mixture of two Pareto distributions is derived. Numericaltabulations of the matrix are also provided for practical purposes. The work is motivated by a real-lifeexample.

Data monitoring is important in the study and analysis of hydrological behaviors of karsticsystems. Monitoring shows the various regimes of groundwater flow (laminar or turbulent), depletion,filling, filtration and karstification degree of karst aquifers. In recent years, analyses of these data hadconsiderable advances using stochastic time series analyses. An important problem related to theseanalyses is the constraint of financial and technical human support. If we can increase the time intervals,the costs are lowered and development of new monitoring networks will be possible. In this research, theeffect of monitoring time intervals on the results of time series analysis and calculated hydrologic delaytimes are studied, using bivariate analyses in spectral domain. The first (shorter) and the second (longer)delay times are related to the flow of groundwater through the larger and smaller fractures of the karsticsystem, respectively. Daily groundwater level data of three piezometers and the discharge of a spring inthe Maharlu karst basin in Iran (5212′ to 5328′E and 291′ to 306′N ) were acquired and then sixdifferent time series having different time intervals (1, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 30 days) were extracted andanalyzed. The results show that the variation of the computed stochastic parameters with increasing timeintervals is unpredictable, but the variation of time (period) corresponding to the frequency at the peak ofamplitude function (curve) shows a linear and predictable relationship, which is unique for every kind ofkarstic aquifer having different degrees of karstification.

Spatial distribution of electric field amplitude has an essential role in laser-induced damagemulti-layer coating. A new method introduced in this paper to reduce the electric field intensityeffectively within the high index layers in multi-layer reflectors that are irradiated by high power lasers.The design is based on specific non-quarter wave pairs, assuming the number of layers is held constant.Using a combination of periodic and non-periodic pairs of a non-quarter wave stack with an appropriatethickness for a specific angle of incidence, minimum electric field can be obtained within the high indexlayers for the S or P polarization. Different results can be obtained if the non-periodic pairs are placedadjacent to the substrate, or to the ambient. We have shown that by the former design, a lower electricfield can be achieved within the layers and the mirror can be optimized. The optimization was carriedout for oblique incidence and the effect of angle of incidence was examined for both S and Ppolarizations.

The aim of this paper is to study orders over a valuation ring V with arbitrary rank in acentral simple F-algebra Q. The relation between all of the orders is explained with a diagram. It is thenshown that inside Bezout order, extremal V-orders are precisely semi-hereditary. In the last section, theeffect of Henselization on maximal and semi-hereditary orders is examined.

In isobaric models for inertial confinement fusion it is assumed that the target configurationat stagnation time (maximum compression) consists of two regions, hot spark and cold fuel, respectively.Here the conditions of spark formation and ignition in hydrogen equimolar isotopes in central sparkignition are investigated and permissible values of Hs and Ts are evaluated numerically. By introducing adimensionless parameter, ψs, the class of targets are considered by the specific value of ψs. Finally,limiting fuel energy gain curve (Gf*) as a function of ignition energy (Eign) allows different implosionvelocities to be calculated. This result is in good agreement with more complex hydrodynamic models.

The problem of hypothesis testing with a nuisance parameter is considered. Two methods forusing fuzzy knowledge on the nuisance parameter to test hypotheses are suggested. These methods areneither a pure classical nor a pure Bayesian approach to hypothesis testing, but rather related to both. Afew known examples and their applications, which cannot be studied by the parametric statisticalmethods, are discussed.

In this paper, the dual area vector of a closed dual spherical curve is kinematically generatedand the dual Steineer vector of a motion are extensively studied by the methods of differential geometry.Jacobi’s Theorems, known for real curves, are investigated for closed dual curves. The closed trajectorysurfaces generated by an oriented line are fixed in a moving rigid body in IR3 , in which the closed dualcurves from E. Study’s transference principle is studied. The integral invariants of these closed ruledsurfaces are calculated by means of the area vector. Moreover, some theorems, results and examples aregiven.

The air quality in Shiraz was assessed based on a one-week passive sampling campaign.During the first week of the summer 2003, about 400 passive samplers were used in groups of two andthree, so that 187 sampling stations covered all of Shiraz. Pollutant gases including SO2, NO2 and BTX(benzene, toluene and xylene) were sampled by diffusive sampling tubes. Collected samples wereanalyzed and pollutant concentrations were determined by using ion chromatography, spectrophotometryand gas chromatography techniques. The result of the analysis shows that SO2 and NO2 concentrationsexceed national and international standards in the central and southern parts of Shiraz. Weekly averagedconcentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene at all sampling sites were 105, 206 and 123 μg/m3, whichexceed national and international standards.Based on the results, more than 15% of Shiraz's population (180,000 out of 1.2 million people)were exposed to high levels of NO2 during this survey period.

This text carries out some ideas about exact and P− exact sequences of transformationsemigroups. Some theorems like the short five lemma (Lemma 1.3 and Lemma 2.3) are valid here as inexact sequences of R − modules.

The general relatively isotropic mean Landsberg metrics contain the general relativelyisotropic Landsberg metrics. A class of Finsler metrics is given, in which the mentioned two conceptsare equivalent. In this paper, an interpretation of general relatively isotropic mean Landsberg metrics isfound by using C-conformal transformations. Some necessary conditions for a general relativelyisotropic mean Landsberg metric, as well as generalized Landsberg metric to be a Riemannian metric arealso found.

Let R and S be reduced rings with identities whose idempotents are central, and let M be an(R, S)-bimodule such that annr (M)=0. In this paper, we determine first the structure of automorphisms ofthe triangular ring, =SR MT0, and then, for all automorphisms α ,β of T we determine the structureof (α,β)-derivations of T.

Sufficient conditions are established under which the zero solution X = 0 of equation (2) isunstable.

The mean and variance of the Lagrangian Katz family of distribution (LKD), the basicLagrangian Katz distribution of Type I (LKD-I) and Type II (LKD-II) are provided in an easy method.The recurrence relation between the non-central, central and factorial moments, and the recurrencerelation between moments and cumulants of LKD, LKD-I and LKD-II are given. The first fourcumulants of LKD-I and LKD-II are provided.

Let M be an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold and TM its tangent bundle. Theconformal and fiber preserving vector fields on TM have well-known physical interpretations and havebeen studied by physicists and geometricians. Here we define a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian liftmetric g on TM , which is in some senses more general than other lift metrics previously defined onTM , and seems to complete these works. Next we study the lift conformal vector fields on (TM,g) andprove among the others that, every complete lift conformal vector field on TM is homothetic, andmoreover, every horizontal or vertical lift conformal vector field on TM is a Killing vector.