eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
1
6
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2048
2048
Separation of the two dimensional Laplace operator by the disconjugacy property
H. A. Atia
h_a_atia@hotmail.com
1
R. A. Mahmoud
2
Current Address: Mathematics Department, Rabigh College of Science and Art, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 344, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
Zagazig University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Zagazig, Egypt
In this paper we have studied the separation for the Laplace differential operator of the form<br /> <br /><br /> <br /><br /> , , <br />in the Hilbert space ², with potential , ¹. We show that certain properties of positive solutions of the disconjugate second order differential expression P[u] imply the separation of minimal and maximal operators determined by P i.e, the property that ² ², ². A property leading to a new proof and generalization of a 1971 separation criterion due to Everitt and Giertz. This result will allow the development of several new sufficient conditions for separation and various inequalities associated with separation. A final result of this paper shows that the disconjugacy of ² for some 0 implies the separation of P.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2048_96e1568a53e04790a4ec6f38dab98e6a.pdf
Separation
Laplace differential operator
Disconjugacy
Hilbert space
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
7
11
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2049
2049
ZnO mediated a cheap, efficient, and mild synthesis of unsymmetrical carboxylic acid anhydrides
M. Hosseini-Sarvari
hossaini@shirazu.ac.ir
1
Z. Mardaneh
2
Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
The treatment equimolar quantities of carboxylic acids with acid chlorides in the presence of ZnO brings about<br />highly efficient unsymmetrical anhydrides at room temperature in solvent-free condition. Reactivity trends<br />favored formation of the product using both electron deficient and rich aryl acids and acid chlorides.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2049_6b3b86f88b8cd2945a36e749c4a6f444.pdf
ZnO
Unsymmetrical anhydrides
Solvent-free conditions
Carboxylic acid
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
13
24
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2050
2050
Chebyshev cardinal functions for solving volterra-fredholm integrodifferential equations using operational matrices
H. Heydari
1
Z. Avazzadeh
2
G. B. Loghmani
loghmani@yazduni.ac.ir
3
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
In this paper, an effective direct method to determine the numerical solution of linear and nonlinear Fredholm and Volterra integral and integro-differential equations is proposed. The method is based on expanding the required approximate solution as the elements of Chebyshev cardinal functions. The operational matrices for the integration and product of the Chebyshev cardinal functions are described in detail. These matrices play the important role of reducing an integral equation to a system of algebraic equations. Illustrative examples are shown, which confirms the validity and applicability of the presented technique.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2050_32aa03656fddb1a28db092a3aca277d3.pdf
Integro-differential equation
mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations
chebyshev cardinal
functions
operational matrix of integration
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
25
35
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2051
2051
Three-component synthesis of propargylamine derivatives via 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone-copper(II) complexes as an efficient catalyst under solvent-free conditions
H. Sharghi
1
A. Khoshnood
2
R. Khalifeh
3
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313, Iran
Highly active Cu (II) complex with 1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone as a cheap and accessable ligand could be used as a catalyst for the preparation of structurally different propargylamines from a one-pot, three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, aldehydes, and secondary amines with high yields under solvent-free conditions. The 1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone is a very efficient Cu(II) scavenger that is able to catalyse the A3-coupling reaction without pre synthesis of the catalyst.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2051_dfe493f58cffd329b1650803be4a9605.pdf
Propargylamines
anthraquinone
A3-coupling
Solvent-free
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
37
46
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2054
2054
Physiological responses of fennel seedling to four environmental stresses
M. Nourimand
1
S. Mohsenzadeh
mohsenzadeh@susc.ac.ir
2
Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
3
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
Faculty of Agriculture and Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is widely cultivated for its edible, strongly-flavored leaves, fruits, seeds and<br />medicinal uses. As the wild and cultivated plants are influenced by environmental stresses, the effects of salt (25, 50 and 75 mM NaCl), nitrogen and iron deficiency (0 N, 0.5 N of Hoagland’s solution, 0 Fe and 0.5 Fe of<br />Hoagland’s solution), 2°C cold (2, 3 and 4 h) and drought (3, 5 and 7 days) stresses on growth, pigment content, and antioxidant activity of fennel at the seedling stage were evaluated. All four stresses resulted in a significant reduction of fresh and dry weights, and chlorophyll a and b and β-carotene content of seedlings. The antioxidant activity of seedling extracts also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all stresses except for 5 and 7 days of drought.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2054_f81b1e40c0e58397fb7c4306b9c9a6f5.pdf
antioxidant activity
cold stress
Drought
Iron deficiency Nitrogen deficiency
Salinity
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
47
50
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2055
2055
Pantic B-spline wavelets and their application for solving linear integral equations
A. Askari-Hemmat
askari@mail.uk.ac.ir
1
Z. Rahbani
2
Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Department of Mathematics, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman, Iran International Center for Science, High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
In this work we deal with the question: how can one improve the approximation level for some nonlinear integral equations? Good candidates for this aim are semi orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and their duals. Although there are different works in this area, only B-spline of degree at most 2 are used for this approximation. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their duals, then we will show that, by using them, one can have better approximation results for the solution of integral equations in comparison with less degrees or other kinds of scaling functions. Some numerical examples show their attractiveness and usefulness
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2055_0d93e86aa239637c009a7b4d057d2e70.pdf
Integral equations
B-spline scaling function
dual functions
wavelets
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
51
60
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2056
2056
Biofacies and palaeoecology of the Jahrum Formation in Lar area, Zagros Basin, (SW Iran)
E. Nafarieh
1
H. Vaziri-Moghaddam
2
A. Taheri
3
A. Ghabeishavi
4
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Geology, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Geology, National Iranian South Oil Company, Ahvaz, Iran
Biofacies and palaeoecology of the limestone of the Jahrum Formation in the Lar area in the southwest of Iran (Zagros Basin) is addressed in this paper. Our detailed analysis of biofacies and palaeoecology shows that the Jahrum Formation in the studied area were deposited in a carbonate open shelf dominated by heterozoan and, subordinately, photozoan skeletal assemblages. Based on analysis of larger benthic foraminiferal assemblages and biofacies features, two major depositional environments are identified. These include inner shelf and middle shelf environments. The inner shelf facies is characterized by wackestone-packstone, dominated by various taxa of imperforate foraminifera. The middle shelf is represented by wackestone-packstone with a diverse assemblage of larger foraminifera with perforate wall. The distribution of the larger benthic foraminifera indicates that shallow marine carbonate sediments of the Jahrum Formation at the studied areas have been deposited in the photic zone of tropical to subtropical oceans.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2056_27be03022b19df5b6c25be3cc8dd9e84.pdf
Biofacies
palaeoecology
Jahrum Formation
Eocene
Zagros Basin
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
61
70
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2057
2057
Numerics of stochastic parabolic differential equations with stable finite difference schemes
A.R. Soheili
1
M. Arezoomandan
2
Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Mathematics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
In the present article, we focus on the numerical approximation of stochastic partial differential equations of Itˆo type with space-time white noise process, in particular, parabolic equations. For each case of additive and<br />multiplicative noise, the numerical solution of stochastic diffusion equations is approximated using two stochastic finite difference schemes and the stability and consistency conditions of the considered methods are analyzed. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the stochastic methods.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2057_6c8ce9de845bd029089c18ed101bc2fb.pdf
Stochastic partial differential equations of Itˆo type
finite difference methods
multiplicative noise
additive noise
Saul’yev method
Liu method
convergence
consistency
Stability
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
71
76
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2058
2058
Effects of salt stress on photosystem II of canola plant (Barassica napus, L.) probing by chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements
M. Jafarinia
1
M. Shariati
2
Department of Biology, University of Isfahan, Hezarjarib St., Isfahan, Iran
Department of Biology, University of Isfahan, Hezarjarib St., Isfahan, Iran
The changes of Chl a fluorescence induction curve in response to different salinity levels in Canola (Barassica napus, L.) plants were investigated. The canola seedlings were exposed to salt stress (100 mM and 200 mM NaCl) for 7 days and Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics was analysed. By using the OJIP-test, various parameters like VJ, area, N, φPo, φEo, ψo, RC/ABS and PIABS were calculated and compared at different salinity levels and compared with the control plants. The results showed that the parameters related to the donor site of electron in PSII [Fv/Fo, φPo and φPo /(1-φPo)] were constant and unaffected by salt stress. In contrast, the parameters dependent on the acceptor site of the electron such as VJ, area, N, φEo, ψo and ψo /(1- ψo) significantly decreased with an increase in salt concentration. Also, the multi parametric index PIABS (performance index) showed enough<br />sensitivity to salt stress as a useful parameter to screen the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in canola plant. Based on our results, we suggest that in response to salt stress the electron acceptor site of PSII, especially at fractions of the transfer of electron from QA to QB and QA redox turnovers is more affected. In conclusion, this fraction of electron transport chain of PSII is possibly the first and major target of salt stress at photosynthetic apparatus in canola plant.
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2058_244ca5371fcb4eda0e04919a78be19ba.pdf
Canola (Barassica napus L.)
chlorophyll a fluorescence
OJIP-test, photosystem II
Salt stress
eng
Springer
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology (Sciences)
1028-6276
1028-6276
2012-02-06
36
1
77
86
10.22099/ijsts.2012.2059
2059
Generalized fuzzy filters in ordered semigroups
B. Davvaz
davvaz@yazduni.ac.ir
1
A. Khan
2
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
coding theory, fuzzy finite state machines, and fuzzy languages. In this paper, we introduce the concept of an (, )-fuzzy filter of an ordered semigroup , where , , , , with . Since the concept of (, )-fuzzy filter is an important and useful generalization of ordinary fuzzy filter, we discuss some fundamental aspects of (, )-fuzzy filters. An (, )-fuzzy filter is a generalization of the existing concept of a fuzzy filter. The concept of (, )-fuzzy filters is also introduced and some related properties are investigated. The relationships among ordinary fuzzy filters, (, )-fuzzy filters and (, )-fuzzy filters are discussed. We discuss the concept of (, )-fuzzy left (right and bi)-filters and provide some characterization theorems. Finally, we extend the concept of a fuzzy subgroup with thresholds to the concept of a fuzzy left (right and bi)-filter with thresholds of .
http://ijsts.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2059_e1d9e85b68cd7d6e286f67c81cfa4dfe.pdf
Semigroup
ordered semigroup
Fuzzy Set
filter
generalized fuzzy filter